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Monetary Policy in Japan: A Structural VAR Analysis

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  • Kasa, Ken
  • Popper, Helen

Abstract

This paper studies the objectives and operating procedures of the Bank of Japan (BOJ) during the period 1975-94. To do this we adapt Bernanke and Mihov's (1995) structural VAR model, which nests several alternative hypotheses concerning central bank behavior. In particular, the model separately identifies the anticipated and unanticipated components of monetary policy, and is capable of distinguishing between interest rate targeting and various types of reserve targeting. ; Three main results emerge from the analysis. First, no single target can explain the BOJ's behavior. Instead, the BOJ appears to weight both variation in the call money rate and variation in nonborrowed reserves, with the weight on the call money rate increasing over time. Second, there is strong evidence that at times the BOJ has employed 'moral suasion' to counter shocks in the demand for borrowed reserves. However, by the second half of the 1980s, this procedure was no longer being used. Third, plots of the overall stance of monetary policy and its unanticipated component clearly reveal that a sharp monetary contraction occurred between early 1990 and late 1992, with an equally sharp expansion since then. Perhaps surprisingly, both the contraction and the subsequent expansion appear to have occurred largely in response to prevailing economic conditions, rather than as an unanticipated change in policy.
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  • Kasa, Ken & Popper, Helen, 1997. "Monetary Policy in Japan: A Structural VAR Analysis," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 275-295, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jjieco:v:11:y:1997:i:3:p:275-295
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    1. Kazuo Ueda, 1993. "A Comparative Perspective on Japanese Monetary Policy: Short-Run Monetary Control and the Transmission Mechanism," NBER Chapters,in: Japanese Monetary Policy, pages 7-30 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Ben S. Bernanke & Ilian Mihov, 1998. "Measuring Monetary Policy," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 113(3), pages 869-902.
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    5. Eijffinger, Sylvester & van Rixtel, Adrian, 1992. "The Japanese financial system and monetary policy: a descriptive review," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 291-309, December.
    6. Bernanke, Ben S & Blinder, Alan S, 1992. "The Federal Funds Rate and the Channels of Monetary Transmission," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(4), pages 901-921, September.
    7. Bennett T. McCallum, 1993. "Specification and Analysis of a Monetary Policy Rule for Japan," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 11(2), pages 1-45, December.
    8. Lawrence J. Christiano & Martin Eichenbaum & Charles Evans, 1994. "The Effects of Monetary Policy Shocks: Some Evidence from the Flow of Funds," NBER Working Papers 4699, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Hiroshi Yoshikawa, 1993. "Monetary Policy and the Real Economy in Japan," NBER Chapters,in: Japanese Monetary Policy, pages 121-159 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Strongin, Steven, 1995. "The identification of monetary policy disturbances explaining the liquidity puzzle," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 463-497, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jounghyeon Kim, 2012. "Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy in the Aftermath of the Asian Financial Crisis: The Case of Korea," Korean Economic Review, Korean Economic Association, vol. 28, pages 91-116.
    2. Aaron MEHROTRA, 2004. "Could Japan Target the Price Level or Inflation - What Happens to Monetary Policy Effectiveness during Disinflation?," Economics Working Papers ECO2004/02, European University Institute.
    3. Mehrotra, Aaron, 2009. "The case for price level or inflation targeting--What happened to monetary policy effectiveness during the Japanese disinflation?," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 280-291, August.
    4. Masahiko Shibamoto, 2016. "Source of Underestimation of the Monetary Policy Effect: Re-Examination of the Policy Effectiveness in Japan's 1990s," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 84(6), pages 795-810, December.
    5. Ippei Fujiwara, 2003. "Output Composition of Monetary Policy Transmission Mechanism in Japan," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 03-07, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP).
    6. Jang, Kyungho & Ogaki, Masao, 2003. "The Effects of Japanese Monetary Policy Shocks on Exchange Rates: A Structural Vector Error Correction Model Approach," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 21(1), pages 1-34, February.
    7. Tomoya Suzuki, 2004. "Credit channel of monetary policy in Japan: resolving the supply versus demand puzzle," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(21), pages 2385-2396.
    8. Nakashima, Kiyotaka, 2006. "The Bank of Japan's operating procedures and the identification of monetary policy shocks: A reexamination using the Bernanke-Mihov approach," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 406-433, September.
    9. Shioji, Etsuro, 2000. "Identifying Monetary Policy Shocks in Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 22-42, March.
    10. Satoshi Urasawa, 2008. "Business cycle fluctuations in Japanese macroeconomic time series: 1980–2000," Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(4), pages 451-480.
    11. Nicolaas Groenewold, 2012. "Australia and the GFC: Saved by Astute Fiscal Policy?," Economics Discussion / Working Papers 12-28, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
    12. Adam Posen, 2003. "It Takes More Than a Bubble to Become Japan," RBA Annual Conference Volume,in: Anthony Richards & Tim Robinson (ed.), Asset Prices and Monetary Policy Reserve Bank of Australia.
    13. M. Berument & Selahattin Togay & Afsin Sahin, 2011. "Identifying the Liquidity Effects of Monetary Policy Shocks for a Small Open Economy: Turkey," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 22(4), pages 649-667, September.
    14. Kiyotaka Nakashima, 2008. "Ideal And Real Japanese Monetary Policy: A Comparative Analysis Of Actual And Optimal Policy Measures," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 59(3), pages 345-369.
    15. Amarasekara, Chandranath, 2008. "The Impact of Monetary Policy on Economic Growth and Inflation in Sri Lanka," MPRA Paper 64866, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Caglayan, Mustafa & Jehan, Zainab & Mouratidis, Kostas, 2012. "Asymmetric monetary policy rules for open economies: Evidence from four countries," MPRA Paper 37401, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Shibamoto, Masahiko, 2008. "The estimation of monetary policy reaction function in a data-rich environment: The case of Japan," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 497-520, December.
    18. Miyao, Ryuzo, 2000. "The Role of Monetary Policy in Japan: A Break in the 1990s?," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 366-384, December.
    19. Renee Fry, 2004. "International demand and liquidity shocks in a SVAR model of the Australian economy," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(8), pages 849-863.
    20. Akhand Akhtar Hossain, 2015. "The Evolution of Central Banking and Monetary Policy in the Asia-Pacific," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14611.
    21. repec:eee:jpolmo:v:40:y:2018:i:1:p:118-135 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. Inoue, Tomoo & Okimoto, Tatsuyoshi, 2008. "Were there structural breaks in the effects of Japanese monetary policy? Re-evaluating policy effects of the lost decade," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 320-342, September.
    23. Menzie D. Chinn & Michael P. Dooley, 1997. "Monetary Policy in Japan, Germany and the United States: Does One Size Fit All?," NBER Working Papers 6092, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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