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The economics of intense exercise

Author

Listed:
  • Meltzer, David O.
  • Jena, Anupam B.

Abstract

Despite the well-known benefits of exercise, the time required for exercise is widely understood as a major reason for low levels of exercise in the US. Intensity of exercise can change the time required for a given amount of total exercise but has never been studied from an economic perspective. We present a simple model of exercise behavior which suggests that the intensity of exercise should increase relative to time spent exercising as wages increase, holding other determinants of exercise constant. Our empirical results identify an association between income and exercise intensity that is consistent with the hypothesis that people respond to increased time costs of exercise by increasing intensity. More generally, our results suggest that time costs may be an important determinant of exercise patterns and that factors that can influence the time costs of exercise, such as intensity, may be important concerns in designing interventions to promote exercise.

Suggested Citation

  • Meltzer, David O. & Jena, Anupam B., 2010. "The economics of intense exercise," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 347-352, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jhecon:v:29:y:2010:i:3:p:347-352
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. David M. Cutler & Edward L. Glaeser & Jesse M. Shapiro, 2003. "Why Have Americans Become More Obese?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 17(3), pages 93-118, Summer.
    2. Grossman, Michael, 1972. "On the Concept of Health Capital and the Demand for Health," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(2), pages 223-255, March-Apr.
    3. Chou, Shin-Yi & Grossman, Michael & Saffer, Henry, 2004. "An economic analysis of adult obesity: results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 565-587, May.
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    1. Links 1/03/2011
      by Liam Delaney in Geary Behaviour Centre on 2011-03-01 21:54:00

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    Cited by:

    1. Maruyama, Shiko & Yin, Qing, 2012. "The opportunity cost of exercise: Do higher-earning Australians exercise longer, harder, or both?," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 106(2), pages 187-194.
    2. Lechner, Michael & Sari, Nazmi, 2015. "Labor market effects of sports and exercise: Evidence from Canadian panel data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 1-15.
    3. Cabane Charlotte & Lechner Michael, 2015. "Physical Activity of Adults: A Survey of Correlates, Determinants, and Effects," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 235(4-5), pages 376-402, August.
    4. Virpi Kuvaja-Köllner & Hannu Valtonen & Pirjo Komulainen & Maija Hassinen & Rainer Rauramaa, 2013. "The impact of time cost of physical exercise on health outcomes by older adults: the DR’s EXTRA Study," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 14(3), pages 471-479, June.
    5. Sari, Nazmi & Lechner, Michael, 2015. "Long-run health effects of sports and exercise in Canada," Economics Working Paper Series 1520, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science.
    6. Michael Lechner & Paul Downward, 2017. "Heterogeneous sports participation and labour market outcomes in England," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(4), pages 335-348, January.
    7. Finke, Michael S. & Huston, Sandra J., 2013. "Time preference and the importance of saving for retirement," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 23-34.
    8. Kjær, Trine & Højgaard, Betina & Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte, 2019. "Physical exercise versus shorter life expectancy? An investigation into preferences for physical activity using a stated preference approach," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 123(8), pages 790-796.
    9. Michael Grossman, 2016. "‘A Theory of the Allocation of Time’ Turns Fifty: Its Impact on the Field of Health Economics," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(1), pages 3-7, January.
    10. Thibaut, Erik & Eakins, John & Vos, Steven & Scheerder, Jeroen, 2017. "Time and money expenditure in sports participation: The role of income in consuming the most practiced sports activities in Flanders," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 455-467.
    11. Murakami, Keiko & Hashimoto, Hideki & Lee, Jung Su & Kawakubo, Kiyoshi & Mori, Katsumi & Akabayashi, Akira, 2011. "Distinct impact of education and income on habitual exercise: A cross-sectional analysis in a rural city in Japan," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 73(12), pages 1683-1688.
    12. Jason R. Williams & Yuta J. Masuda & Heather Tallis, 2016. "A Measure Whose Time has Come: Formalizing Time Poverty," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 128(1), pages 265-283, August.
    13. Hyytinen, Ari & Lahtonen, Jukka, 2013. "The effect of physical activity on long-term income," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 129-137.
    14. Michael Goldsby & James Bishop & Elizabeth Goldsby & Christopher B. Neck & Christopher P. Neck, 2021. "The Impact of Self-Management Practices on Entrepreneurial Psychological States," Administrative Sciences, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(1), pages 1-13, February.
    15. Karen Smith Conway & David P. Niles, 2017. "Cigarette Taxes, Smoking—and Exercise?," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(8), pages 1019-1036, August.

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