Global developments in the competition for land from biofuels
The potential global demand for biofuels and the implications of this for land use and its interaction with food agriculture is reviewed. It is expected that biofuels will form an important element of global transport energy mix (in the order of 20–30% of total requirement) over the next 40years and beyond. Over this time, there will be a transition from so called first generation biofuels, based on commodity agricultural crops with food/feed uses, to advanced biofuels, sometimes called second and third generation biofuels, based primarily upon lignocellulosic feedstocks. It remains unclear whether these advanced biofuels, based on lignocellulosic materials, will entirely replace first generation or if second generation will be supplemental to first generation. This expansion in biofuels will be coupled to a substantial increase in alternative fuels (electricity, hydrogen, biogas and natural gas) and modal shifts. Biofuel production from agricultural commodity crops that exhibit strong sustainability criteria will remain important (e.g. sugarcane) with supportive and competitive aspects for food security.
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- Daniel M. Kammen & Alexander E. Farrell & Richard J. Plevin & Andrew D. Jones & Mark A. Delucchi & Gregory F. Nemet, 2007.
"Energy and Greenhouse Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis,"
OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre Discussion Papers
2007/2, OECD Publishing.
- Kammen, Daniel M. & Farrell, Alexander E. & Plevin, Richard J. & Jones, Andrew D. & Nemet, Gregory F. & Delucchi, Mark A., 2008. "Energy and Greenhouse Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis," Institute of Transportation Studies, Research Reports, Working Papers, Proceedings qt7zg2x23t, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Berkeley.
- Hammond, G.P. & Kallu, S. & McManus, M.C., 2008. "Development of biofuels for the UK automotive market," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 85(6), pages 506-515, June.
- Jacinto F. Fabiosa, 2009. "Land-Use Credits to Corn Ethanol: Accounting for Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles as a Feed Substitute in Swine Rations," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 09-wp489, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
- Jacinto F. Fabiosa, 2009. "Land-Use Credits to Corn Ethanol: Accounting for Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles as a Feed Substitute in Swine Rations," Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) Publications 09-wp489, Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) at Iowa State University. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)