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Optimal compensation contracts when managers can hedge

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  • Gao, Huasheng

Abstract

This paper examines optimal compensation contracts when executives can hedge their personal portfolios. In a simple principal-agent framework, I predict that the Chief Executive Officer's (CEO's) pay-performance sensitivity decreases with the executive-hedging cost. Empirically, I find evidence supporting the model's prediction. Providing further support for the theory, I show that shareholders also impose a high sensitivity of CEO wealth to stock volatility and increase financial leverage to resolve the executive-hedging problem. Moreover, executives with lower hedging costs hold more exercisable in-the-money options, have weaker incentives to cut dividends, and pursue fewer corporate diversification initiatives. Overall, the manager's ability to hedge the firm's risk affects governance mechanisms and managerial actions.

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  • Gao, Huasheng, 2010. "Optimal compensation contracts when managers can hedge," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 218-238, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:97:y:2010:i:2:p:218-238
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    Cited by:

    1. Akron, Sagi & Benninga, Simon, 2013. "Production and hedging implications of executive compensation schemes," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 119-139.
    2. Otto, Clemens A., 2014. "CEO optimism and incentive compensation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 114(2), pages 366-404.
    3. Gao, Huasheng & Li, Kai, 2015. "A comparison of CEO pay–performance sensitivity in privately-held and public firms," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 370-388.
    4. repec:eee:jaecon:v:64:y:2017:i:1:p:37-55 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Joanne Oxley & Gurupdesh Pandher, 2016. "Equity-based incentives and collaboration in the modern multibusiness firm," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(7), pages 1379-1394, July.
    6. Simona Catuogno & Sara Saggese & Fabrizia Sarto & Riccardo Viganò, 2016. "Shedding light on the aim of stock options: a literature review," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 20(2), pages 387-411, June.
    7. Krolikowski, Marcin W., 2016. "Incentive pay and acquirer returns – The impact of Sarbanes–Oxley," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 99-111.
    8. repec:oup:revfin:v:21:y:2017:i:5:p:1805-1846. is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Choe, Chongwoo & Lien, Donald & Yu, Chia-Feng (Jeffrey), 2015. "Optimal managerial hedging and contracting with self-esteem concerns," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 354-367.
    10. Hung, Mao-Wei & Liu, Yu-Jane & Tsai, Chia-Fen, 2012. "Managerial personal diversification and portfolio equity incentives," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 38-64.
    11. repec:oup:rfinst:v:21:y:2017:i:5:p:1805-1846. is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Hüttenbrink, Alexander & Oehmichen, Jana & Rapp, Marc Steffen & Wolff, Michael, 2014. "Pay-for-performance – Does one size fit all? A multi-country study of Europe and the United States," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 1179-1192.

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