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The RELQUAL scale: a measure of relationship quality in export market ventures

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  • Lages, Carmen
  • Lages, Cristiana Raquel
  • Lages, Luis Filipe

Abstract

In this article the authors develop a new measurement scale (the RELQUAL scale) to assess the degree of relationship quality between the exporting firm and the importer. Relationship quality is presented as a high order concept. Findings reveal that a better quality of the relationship results in a greater 1) amount of information sharing, 2) communication quality, 3) long-term orientation, as well as 4) satisfaction with the relationship. The four multi-item scales show strong evidence of reliability as well as convergent, discriminant and nomological validity in a sample of British exporters. Findings also reveal that relationship quality is positively and significantly associated with export performance. Suggestions for applying the measure in future research are presented.
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  • Lages, Carmen & Lages, Cristiana Raquel & Lages, Luis Filipe, 2005. "The RELQUAL scale: a measure of relationship quality in export market ventures," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 58(8), pages 1040-1048, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbrese:v:58:y:2005:i:8:p:1040-1048
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    1. Lages, Luis Filipe & Lages, Cristiana Raquel, 2002. "The STEP Scale: A Cross-National Scale for Short-Term Export Performance Improvement," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp422, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
    2. JS Armstrong & Terry Overton, 2005. "Estimating Nonresponse Bias in Mail Surveys," General Economics and Teaching 0502044, EconWPA.
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    6. Bejou, David & Wray, Barry & Ingram, Thomas N., 1996. "Determinants of relationship quality: An artificial neural network analysis," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 137-143, June.
    7. N. Sheth, Jagdish & Parvatiyar, Atul, 1995. "Relationship marketing," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 391-396.
    8. John W Cadogan & Adamantios Diamantopoulos & Charles Pahud de Mortanges, 1999. "A Measure of Export Market Orientation: Scale Development and Cross-cultural Validation," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 30(4), pages 689-707, December.
    9. Armstrong, J. Scott & Overton, Terry S., 1977. "Estimating Nonresponse Bias in Mail Surveys," MPRA Paper 81694, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    Cited by:

    1. Li, Jizhong & Jiang, Fuming & Shen, Jie, 2016. "Institutional distance and the quality of the headquarters–subsidiary relationship: The moderating role of the institutionalization of headquarters’ practices in subsidiaries," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 589-603.
    2. repec:eee:iburev:v:27:y:2018:i:1:p:246-258 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Simona-Mihaela TRIF, 2012. "Antecedents and consequences of relationship quality. A case study of banking sector in Romania," Timisoara Journal of Economics, West University of Timisoara, Romania, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, vol. 5(18), pages 253-271.
    4. Lages, Luis Filipe, 2016. "VCW—Value Creation Wheel: Innovation, technology, business, and society," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(11), pages 4849-4855.
    5. Zander, Katrin & Beske, Philip, 2014. "Happy Growers! Relationship Quality in the German Organic Apple Chain," International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IFAMA), vol. 17(3).
    6. Lages, Luis Filipe & Lancastre, Andrew & Lages, Carmen, 2005. "Bringing Relationship Marketing Theory into B2B Practice: The B2B-RP Scale and the B2B-RELPERF Scorecard," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp471, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
    7. Leonidou, Leonidas C. & Katsikeas, Constantine S., 2010. "Integrative assessment of exporting research articles in business journals during the period 1960-2007," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 63(8), pages 879-887, August.
    8. Danik Lidia, 2015. "Inter-firm Relationship Quality vs. Perceived Cultural Differences," International Journal of Management and Economics, De Gruyter Open, vol. 45(1), pages 7-31, March.
    9. Antonio CORREIA de BARROS & Hortensia BARANDAS & Paulo Alexandre PIRES, 2009. "Applying Artificial Neural Networks to Evaluate Export Performance: A Relational Approach," REVISTA DE MANAGEMENT COMPARAT INTERNATIONAL/REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL COMPARATIVE MANAGEMENT, Faculty of Management, Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania, vol. 10(4), pages 713-734, October.
    10. de Magistris, Tiziana & Gracia, Azucena, 2008. "Co-operation and economic relationship as determinants for competitiveness in the food sector: the Spanish wheat to bread chain," 2008 International Congress, August 26-29, 2008, Ghent, Belgium 44066, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    11. Lages, Luis Filipe & Silva, Graça & Styles, Chris & Pereira, Zulema Lopes, 2009. "The NEP Scale: A measure of network export performance," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 344-356, August.
    12. Rota, Cosimo & Zanasi, Cesare, 2011. "Sustainable Relations in International Development Cooperation Projects: The Role of Organizational Climate," International Journal on Food System Dynamics, International Center for Management, Communication, and Research, vol. 2(1).
    13. Kahia, Montassar, 2017. "The key factors of export intensity in Tunisia: A Logistic regression with random effect model," MPRA Paper 77278, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Obadia, Claude & Vida, Irena, 2011. "Cross-border relationships and performance: Revisiting a complex linkage," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 64(5), pages 467-475, May.
    15. Oznur OZKAN-TEKTAS, 2014. "The Effects of Opportunism and Trust on Buyer-Supplier Relationship: Do Commitment Types Matter?," International Journal of Business and Social Research, MIR Center for Socio-Economic Research, vol. 4(9), pages 14-26, September.
    16. Sarstedt, Marko & Ringle, Christian M. & Smith, Donna & Reams, Russell & Hair, Joseph F., 2014. "Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): A useful tool for family business researchers," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 105-115.
    17. Chen, Yi-Su & Su, Hung-Chung & Ro, Young K., 2017. "The co-evolution of supplier relationship quality and product quality in the U.S. auto industry: A cultural perspective," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 245-255.
    18. repec:eee:touman:v:52:y:2016:i:c:p:82-95 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Sichtmann, Christina & Griese, Ilka & Klein, Maren, 2007. "Determinants of the international performance of services: a conceptual model," Discussion Papers 2007/17, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
    20. Dias, José António & Dias, José G. & Lages, Carmen, 2017. "Can negative characters in soap operas be positive for product placement?," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 125-132.
    21. Hossein Rezaie Dolatabadi & Mohammad Hossein Forghani & Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaee & Fatemeh Faghani, 2013. "Effect of Appropriate Marketing Mix Strategies on Iranian Protein Products Export Performance," International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, vol. 3(3), pages 21-27, July.
    22. Rauyruen, Papassapa & Miller, Kenneth E., 2007. "Relationship quality as a predictor of B2B customer loyalty," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 21-31, January.
    23. Velez, Maria L. & Sanchez, Jose M. & Florez, Raquel & Alvarez-Dardet, Concha, 2015. "How control system information characteristics affect exporter–intermediary relationship quality," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 812-824.
    24. Bauer, Hans H. & Falk, Tomas & Hammerschmidt, Maik, 2006. "eTransQual: A transaction process-based approach for capturing service quality in online shopping," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 59(7), pages 866-875, July.
    25. Yan, Ruiliang & Pei, Zhi, 2011. "Information asymmetry, pricing strategy and firm's performance in the retailer- multi-channel manufacturer supply chain," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 64(4), pages 377-384, April.

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