Is the Home Equity Conversion Mortgage in the United States sustainable? Evidence from pricing mortgage insurance premiums and non-recourse provisions using the conditional Esscher transform
The purpose of this paper is to build a modeling and pricing framework to investigate the sustainability of the Home Equity Conversion Mortgage (HECM) program in the United States under realistic economic scenarios, i.e., whether the premium payments cover the fair premiums for the inherent risks in the HECM program. We note that earlier HECM models use static mortality tables, neglecting the dynamics of mortality rates and extreme mortality jumps. The earlier models also assume housing prices follow a geometric Brownian motion, which contradicts the fact that housing prices exhibit strong autocorrelation and varying volatility over time. To solve these problems, we propose a generalized Lee-Carter model with asymmetric jump effects to fit the mortality data, and model the house price index via an ARIMA-GARCH process. We then employ the conditional Esscher transform to price the non-recourse provision of reverse mortgages and compare it with the calculated mortgage insurance premiums. The HECM program turns out to be sustainable based on our model setup and parameter settings.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Cox, John C & Ingersoll, Jonathan E, Jr & Ross, Stephen A, 1985. "A Theory of the Term Structure of Interest Rates," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(2), pages 385-407, March.
- Goovaerts, Marc J. & Laeven, Roger J.A., 2008. "Actuarial risk measures for financial derivative pricing," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 540-547, April.
- Engle, Robert F, 1982. "Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity with Estimates of the Variance of United Kingdom Inflation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 987-1007, July.
- Badescu, Alex & Elliott, Robert J. & Siu, Tak Kuen, 2009. "Esscher transforms and consumption-based models," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 337-347, December.
- Tim Bollerslev, 1986.
"Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity,"
EERI Research Paper Series
EERI RP 1986/01, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels.
- Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
- Hamilton, Bruce W. & Schwab, Robert M., 1985. "Expected appreciation in urban housing markets," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 103-118, July.
- Edward J. Szymanoski, 1994. "Risk and the Home Equity Conversion Mortgage," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 22(2), pages 347-366.
- Thomas P. Boehm & Michael C. Ehrhardt, 1994. "Reverse Mortgages and Interest Rate Risk," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 22(2), pages 387-408.
- Manishi Prasad & Peter Wahlqvist & Rich Shikiar & Ya-Chen Tina Shih, 2004. "A," PharmacoEconomics, Springer Healthcare | Adis, vol. 22(4), pages 225-244.
- David T. Rodda & Ken Lam & Andrew Youn, 2004. "Stochastic Modeling of Federal Housing Administration Home Equity Conversion Mortgages with Low-Cost Refinancing," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 32(4), pages 589-617, December.
- Takatoshi Ito & Keiko Nosse Hirono, 1993.
"Efficiency of the Tokyo Housing Market,"
NBER Working Papers
4382, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Vasicek, Oldrich, 1977. "An equilibrium characterization of the term structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 177-188, November.
- Lin, Yijia & Cox, Samuel H., 2008. "Securitization of catastrophe mortality risks," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 628-637, April.
- Case, Karl E & Shiller, Robert J, 1989.
"The Efficiency of the Market for Single-Family Homes,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 125-37, March.
- Karl E. Case & Robert J. Shiller, 1988. "The Efficiency of the Market for Single-Family Homes," NBER Working Papers 2506, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Chinloy, Peter & Cho, Man & Megbolugbe, Isaac F, 1997. "Appraisals, Transaction Incentives, and Smoothing," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1-2), pages 89-111, Jan.-Marc.
- Peter Chinloy & Isaac F. Megbolugbe, 1994. "Reverse Mortgages: Contracting and Crossover Risk," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 22(2), pages 367-386.
- Linneman, Peter, 1986. "An empirical test of the efficiency of the housing market," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 140-154, September.
- Vasicek, Oldrich Alfonso, 1977. "Abstract: An Equilibrium Characterization of the Term Structure," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(04), pages 627-627, November.
- Biffis, Enrico, 2005. "Affine processes for dynamic mortality and actuarial valuations," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 443-468, December.
- Jin-Chuan Duan, 1995. "The Garch Option Pricing Model," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 13-32.
- Hua Chen & Samuel H. Cox, 2009. "Modeling Mortality With Jumps: Applications to Mortality Securitization," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 76(3), pages 727-751.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:insuma:v:46:y:2010:i:2:p:371-384. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.