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Market failures and the additionality effects of public support to private R&D: Theory and empirical implications


  • Takalo, Tuomas
  • Tanayama, Tanja
  • Toivanen, Otto


We extend the theoretical basis of the empirical literature on the effects of R&D subsidies by providing an estimable model of strategic interaction among subsidy applicants, and public and private sector R&D financiers. Our model incorporates fixed R&D cost and a cost of external finance. We derive the optimal support rule. At the intensive (extensive) margin the costs of external funding reduce (increase) the optimal subsidy rate. We also establish necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of additionality. It turns out that additionality at the intensive margin is less likely with higher spillovers. Our results suggest that the relationship between additionality and welfare may not be straightforward.

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  • Takalo, Tuomas & Tanayama, Tanja & Toivanen, Otto, 2013. "Market failures and the additionality effects of public support to private R&D: Theory and empirical implications," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 634-642.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:indorg:v:31:y:2013:i:5:p:634-642 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijindorg.2013.02.002

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Liliana Gelabert & Andrea Fosfuri & Josep A. Tribó, 2009. "DOES THE EFFECT OF PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR R&D DEPEND ON THE DEGREE OF APPROPRIABILITY? -super-," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(4), pages 736-767, December.
    2. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Lopes-Bento, Cindy, 2013. "Value for money? New microeconometric evidence on public R&D grants in Flanders," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 76-89.
    3. Bloom, Nick & Griffith, Rachel & Van Reenen, John, 2002. "Do R&D tax credits work? Evidence from a panel of countries 1979-1997," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 1-31, July.
    4. Tuomas Takalo, 2012. "Rationales and Instruments for Public Innovation Policies," Journal of Reviews on Global Economics, Lifescience Global, vol. 1, pages 157-167.
    5. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Hanel, Petr & Rosa, Julio Miguel, 2011. "Evaluating the impact of R&D tax credits on innovation: A microeconometric study on Canadian firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 217-229, March.
    6. Xulia González & Jordi Jaumandreu & Consuelo Pazo, 2005. "Barriers to Innovation and Subsidy Effectiveness," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 36(4), pages 930-949, Winter.
    7. Kenneth Arrow, 1962. "Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention," NBER Chapters,in: The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, pages 609-626 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Lach, Saul, 2002. "Do R&D Subsidies Stimulate or Displace Private R&D? Evidence from Israel," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(4), pages 369-390, December.
    9. Isabel Busom, 2000. "An Empirical Evaluation of The Effects of R&D Subsidies," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 111-148.
    10. David, Paul A. & Hall, Bronwyn H. & Toole, Andrew A., 2000. "Is public R&D a complement or substitute for private R&D? A review of the econometric evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 497-529, April.
    11. Katrin Hussinger, 2008. "R&D and subsidies at the firm level: an application of parametric and semiparametric two-step selection models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(6), pages 729-747.
    12. Jacek Warda, 2006. "Tax Treatment of Business Investments in Intellectual Assets: An International Comparison," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2006/4, OECD Publishing.
    13. Richard R. Nelson, 1959. "The Simple Economics of Basic Scientific Research," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 67, pages 297-297.
    14. Almus, Matthias & Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2003. "The Effects of Public R&D Subsidies on Firms' Innovation Activities: The Case of Eastern Germany," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 21(2), pages 226-236, April.
    15. Giovanni Cerulli, 2010. "Modelling and Measuring the Effect of Public Subsidies on Business R&D: A Critical Review of the Econometric Literature," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 86(274), pages 421-449, September.
    16. Busom, Isabel & Corchuelo, Beatriz & Martinez Ros, Ester, 2012. "Tax incentives or subsidies for R&D?," MERIT Working Papers 056, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    17. Tuomas Takalo & Tanja Tanayama & Otto Toivanen, 2013. "Estimating the Benefits of Targeted R&D Subsidies," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(1), pages 255-272, March.
    18. Scott J. Wallsten, 2000. "The Effects of Government-Industry R&D Programs on Private R&D: The Case of the Small Business Innovation Research Program," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 31(1), pages 82-100, Spring.
    19. Hall, Bronwyn & Van Reenen, John, 2000. "How effective are fiscal incentives for R&D? A review of the evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 449-469, April.
    20. José García-Quevedo, 2004. "Do Public Subsidies Complement Business R&D? A Meta-Analysis of the Econometric Evidence," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(1), pages 87-102, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Takalo, Tuomas & Tanayama, Tanja & Toivanen, Otto, 2017. "Welfare Effects of R&D Support Policies," CEPR Discussion Papers 12155, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Tuomas Takalo, 2012. "Rationales and Instruments for Public Innovation Policies," Journal of Reviews on Global Economics, Lifescience Global, vol. 1, pages 157-167.
    3. Benjamin Montmartin & Marcos Herrera & Nadine Massard, 2015. "R&D Policies in France: New Evidence from a NUTS3 Spatial Analysis," GREDEG Working Papers 2015-26, Groupe de REcherche en Droit, Economie, Gestion (GREDEG CNRS), University of Nice Sophia Antipolis.
    4. Chih-Sheng Hsieh & Michael D. König & Xiaodong Liu, 2012. "Network formation with local complements and global substitutes: the case of R&D networks," ECON - Working Papers 217, Department of Economics - University of Zurich, revised Feb 2017.
    5. Paul Hünermund & Dirk Czarnitzki, 2016. " Estimating the local average treatment effect of R&D subsidies in a pan-European program," Working Papers Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy and Innovation (MSI) 541177, KU Leuven, Faculty of Economics and Business, Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy and Innovation (MSI).
    6. repec:kap:sbusec:v:50:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s11187-017-9877-3 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Huergo, Elena & Trenado, Mayte & Ubierna, Andrés, 2016. "The impact of public support on firm propensity to engage in R&D: Spanish experience," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 113(PB), pages 206-219.
    8. Isabel Busom & Beatriz Corchuelo & Ester Martínez-Ros, 2015. "Dynamics of firm participation in R&D tax credit and subsidy programs," Working Papers wpdea1503, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
    9. Hottenrott, Hanna & Demeulemeester, Sarah, 2017. "R&D Subsidies and Firms’ Cost of Debt," Annual Conference 2017 (Vienna): Alternative Structures for Money and Banking 168093, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    10. Paola Valbonesi & Federico Biagi, 2016. "Incentivising Innovation and Adoption of ICT: ICT Innovation Voucher Programmes," JRC Working Papers JRC104057, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    11. Demeulemeester, Sarah & Hottenrott, Hanna, 2015. "R&D subsidies and firms' cost of debt," DICE Discussion Papers 201, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
    12. repec:kap:jtecht:v:42:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s10961-016-9501-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Crowley, Patrick M. & Garcia, Enrique & Quah Chee-Heong, 2013. "Is Europe growing together or growing apart?," Research Discussion Papers 33/2013, Bank of Finland.
    14. Hünermund, Paul & Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2015. "Estimating the Local Average Treatment Effect of R&D Subsidies in a Virtual Common Pot," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 112869, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    15. repec:eee:respol:v:46:y:2017:i:6:p:1118-1132 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Additionality; Financing of innovations; Market failure; R&D investments; Subsidies; Welfare;

    JEL classification:

    • D04 - Microeconomics - - General - - - Microeconomic Policy: Formulation; Implementation; Evaluation
    • G38 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • H25 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Business Taxes and Subsidies
    • L59 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Other
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O38 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy


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