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Reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and cost by shipping at lower speeds

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  • Lindstad, Haakon
  • Asbjørnslett, Bjørn E.
  • Strømman, Anders H.

Abstract

CO2 emissions from maritime transport represent a significant part of total global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. According to the International Maritime Organization (Second IMO GHG study, 2009), maritime transport emitted 1046 million tons (all tons are metric) of CO2 in 2007, representing 3.3% of the world's total CO2 emissions. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is currently debating both technical and market-based measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from shipping. This paper presents investigations on the effects of speed reductions on the direct emissions and costs of maritime transport, for which the selection of ship classes was made to facilitate an aggregated representation of the world fleet. The results show that there is a substantial potential for reducing CO2 emissions in shipping. Emissions can be reduced by 19% with a negative abatement cost (cost minimization) and by 28% at a zero abatement cost. Since these emission reductions are based purely on lower speeds, they can in part be performed now.

Suggested Citation

  • Lindstad, Haakon & Asbjørnslett, Bjørn E. & Strømman, Anders H., 2011. "Reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and cost by shipping at lower speeds," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 3456-3464, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:6:p:3456-3464
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Johnson, Hannes & Styhre, Linda, 2015. "Increased energy efficiency in short sea shipping through decreased time in port," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 167-178.
    2. Lindstad, Haakon & Asbjørnslett, Bjørn E. & Strømman, Anders H., 2012. "The importance of economies of scale for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from shipping," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 386-398.
    3. Jafarzadeh, Sepideh & Utne, Ingrid Bouwer, 2014. "A framework to bridge the energy efficiency gap in shipping," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 603-612.
    4. Demir, Emrah & Huang, Yuan & Scholts, Sebastiaan & Van Woensel, Tom, 2015. "A selected review on the negative externalities of the freight transportation: Modeling and pricing," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 95-114.
    5. Bueno, Gorka, 2012. "Analysis of scenarios for the reduction of energy consumption and GHG emissions in transport in the Basque Country," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 1988-1998.
    6. Lindstad, Haakon Elizabeth & Eskeland, Gunnar S. & Rialland, Agathe, 2016. "Batteries in Offshore Support vessels - Pollution, climate impact and economics," Discussion Papers 2016/21, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Business and Management Science.
    7. Lindstad, Haakon & Bright, Ryan M. & Strømman, Anders H., 2016. "Economic savings linked to future Arctic shipping trade are at odds with climate change mitigation," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 24-30.
    8. Gu, Yewen & Wallace, Stein W. & Wang, Xin, 2016. "Integrated maritime bunker management with stochastic fuel prices and new emission regulations," Discussion Papers 2016/13, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Business and Management Science.
    9. Lindstad, Haakon & Jullumstrø, Egil & Sandaas, Inge, 2013. "Reductions in cost and greenhouse gas emissions with new bulk ship designs enabled by the Panama Canal expansion," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 341-349.
    10. Gu, Yewen & Wallace, Stein W. & Wang, Xin, 2016. "The Impact of Bunker Risk Management on CO2 Emissions in Maritime Transportation Under ECA Regulation," Discussion Papers 2016/17, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Business and Management Science.
    11. Kreuzer, Fabian Maximilian & Wilmsmeier, Gordon, 2014. "Energy efficiency and mobility: A roadmap towards a greener economy in Latin America and the Caribbean," Documentos de Proyectos 602, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
    12. Wong, Eugene Y.C. & Tai, Allen H. & Lau, Henry Y.K. & Raman, Mardjuki, 2015. "An utility-based decision support sustainability model in slow steaming maritime operations," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 57-69.
    13. Meng, Ming & Niu, Dongxiao & Shang, Wei, 2014. "A small-sample hybrid model for forecasting energy-related CO2 emissions," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 673-677.
    14. Ančić, Ivica & Šestan, Ante, 2015. "Influence of the required EEDI reduction factor on the CO2 emission from bulk carriers," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 107-116.
    15. Nugent, Daniel & Sovacool, Benjamin K., 2014. "Assessing the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions from solar PV and wind energy: A critical meta-survey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 229-244.
    16. Lee, Tsung-Chen & Chang, Young-Tae & Lee, Paul T.W., 2013. "Economy-wide impact analysis of a carbon tax on international container shipping," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 87-102.
    17. Di Lullo, Giovanni & Zhang, Hao & Kumar, Amit, 2016. "Evaluation of uncertainty in the well-to-tank and combustion greenhouse gas emissions of various transportation fuels," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 413-426.
    18. Traut, Michael & Gilbert, Paul & Walsh, Conor & Bows, Alice & Filippone, Antonio & Stansby, Peter & Wood, Ruth, 2014. "Propulsive power contribution of a kite and a Flettner rotor on selected shipping routes," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 362-372.
    19. Dinwoodie, John & Tuck, Sarah & Rigot-Müller, Patrick, 2013. "Maritime oil freight flows to 2050: Delphi perceptions of maritime specialists," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 553-561.
    20. Mansouri, S. Afshin & Lee, Habin & Aluko, Oluwakayode, 2015. "Multi-objective decision support to enhance environmental sustainability in maritime shipping: A review and future directions," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 3-18.

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