IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Transforming shortcomings into opportunities: Can market incentives solve Lebanon's energy crisis?


  • Ruble, Isabella
  • Nader, Pamela


Over the past decades Lebanon's energy sector has been largely ignored and this has led to high economic and environmental costs. The sector is characterized by electricity poverty, an expanding and mainly unregulated transport sector and a lack of energy savings spanning through all sectors of the economy. Recently, the Government of Lebanon has committed to increase the share of renewable energy to 10% of the total energy supply by 2013 and to 12% by the year 2020; it also aims at reducing energy consumption by 6% by the year 2013. This paper aims at contributing to the formulation of a more comprehensive energy strategy for Lebanon by analyzing the recent changes in policy direction and by recommending legal, regulatory and policy measures in order to transform current shortcomings into opportunities allowing the country to become a regional 'success story' in the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency.

Suggested Citation

  • Ruble, Isabella & Nader, Pamela, 2011. "Transforming shortcomings into opportunities: Can market incentives solve Lebanon's energy crisis?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2467-2474, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:5:p:2467-2474

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. World Bank, 2009. "Tapping a Hidden Resource : Energy Efficiency in the Middle East and North Africa," World Bank Other Operational Studies 17151, The World Bank.
    2. Karakosta, Charikleia & Doukas, Haris & John, Psarras, 2010. "EU-MENA energy technology transfer under the CDM: Israel as a frontrunner?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 2455-2462, May.
    3. AfDB AfDB, . "Africa’s Voice and Financier," African Development Fund Series, African Development Bank, number 12 edited by Jihene Aissaoui.
    4. El-Fadel, M. & Chedid, R. & Zeinati, M. & Hmaidan, W., 2003. "Mitigating energy-related GHG emissions through renewable energy," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 28(8), pages 1257-1276.
    5. AfDB AfDB, . "The AfDB Group in North Africa 2009," Country Brochure, African Development Bank, number 116, September.
    6. Laura A German & Alain Karsenty & Anne-Marie Tiani & Carol Colfer & E Barrow & C Küchli & J Blaser & W Wardojo & JC Ribot & Chimere Diaw & P Jagger & T Blomley & H Ramadhani & Y Mkwizu & A Böhringer &, 2010. "Governing Africa's forests in a globalized world," Selected Books, CIRAD, Forest department, UPR40, edition 1, volume 1, number 15 edited by Laura A German & Alain Karsenty & Anne-Marie Tiani.
    7. World Bank, 2008. "Lebanon : Electricity Sector Public Expenditure Review," World Bank Other Operational Studies 7990, The World Bank.
    8. Oecd, 2012. "Carbon finance in Africa," OECD Journal: General Papers, OECD Publishing, vol. 2010(4), pages 143-162.
    9. Chaaban, F B & Rahman, Saifur, 1998. "Baseline energy and electricity consumptions in Lebanon and opportunities for conservation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 487-493, May.
    10. AfDB AfDB, . "African Statistical Journal Vol. 9," African Statistical Journal, African Development Bank, number 57 edited by Koua Louis Kouakou, March.
    11. World Bank, 2009. "Energy Efficiency Study in Lebanon," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12740, The World Bank.
    12. Reiche, Danyel, 2010. "Renewable Energy Policies in the Gulf countries: A case study of the carbon-neutral "Masdar City" in Abu Dhabi," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 378-382, January.
    13. AfDB AfDB, . "Africa Achieves," Africa Achieves, African Development Bank, number 6 edited by Thomas Hurley.
    14. John Anyanwu, . "Oil and Gas in Africa," Oil and Gas in Africa, African Development Bank, number 101 edited by John Anyanwu.
    15. El-Fadel, R.H. & Hammond, G.P. & Harajli, H.A. & Jones, C.I. & Kabakian, V.K. & Winnett, A.B., 2010. "The Lebanese electricity system in the context of sustainable development," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 751-761, February.
    16. Dagher, Leila & Ruble, Isabella, 2010. "Challenges for CO2 mitigation in the Lebanese electric-power sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 912-918, February.
    17. AfDB AfDB, . "African Statistical Yearbook 2010," African Statistical Yearbook, African Development Bank, number 59 edited by Koua Louis Kouakou.
    18. World Bank, 2009. "Lebanon - Social Impact Analysis : Electricity and Water Sectors," World Bank Other Operational Studies 18890, The World Bank.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Antar, E. & Elkhoury, M., 2019. "Parametric sizing optimization process of a casing for a Savonius Vertical Axis Wind Turbine," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 136(C), pages 127-138.
    2. Khodr, Hiba & Uherova Hasbani, Katarina, 2013. "The dynamics of energy policy in Lebanon when research, politics, and policy fail to intersect," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 629-642.
    3. Ruble, Isabella & Karaki, Sami, 2013. "Introducing mandatory standards for select household appliances in Lebanon: A cost-benefit analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 608-617.
    4. Ibrahim, Oussama & Fardoun, Farouk & Younes, Rafic & Louahlia-Gualous, Hasna, 2013. "Energy status in Lebanon and electricity generation reform plan based on cost and pollution optimization," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 255-278.
    5. Ibrahim, Oussama & Fardoun, Farouk & Younes, Rafic & Louahlia-Gualous, Hasna & Ghandour, Mazen, 2013. "Multi-variable optimization for future electricity-plan scenarios in Lebanon," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 49-56.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:5:p:2467-2474. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.