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The environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for water pollution: Do regions matter?

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  • Lee, Chien-Chiang
  • Chiu, Yi-Bin
  • Sun, Chia-Hung

Abstract

This study revisits the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for water pollution by using a recent dynamic technique, which is the generalized method of moments (GMM) approach, for a board sample of 97 countries during the period 1980-2001. On a global scale, as we cannot obtain the EKC relationship between real income and biological oxygen demand (BOD) emissions, this paper further classifies these countries into four regional groups - Africa, Asia and Oceania, America, and Europe - to explore whether the different regions have different ECK relationships. The empirical results show evidence of the inverted U-shaped EKC relationships' existence in America and Europe, but not in Africa and Asia and Oceania. Thus, the regional difference of EKC for water pollution is supported. Furthermore, the estimated turning points are, approximately, US$13,956 and US$38,221 for America and Europe, respectively.

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  • Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chiu, Yi-Bin & Sun, Chia-Hung, 2010. "The environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for water pollution: Do regions matter?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 12-23, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:38:y:2010:i:1:p:12-23
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    4. Huixuan Li & Yingru Li & Ming-Kuo Lee & Zhongwei Liu & Changhong Miao, 2015. "Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(7), pages 1-21, July.
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    7. Eriko Miyama & Shunsuke Managi, 2014. "Global environmental emissions estimate: application of multiple imputation," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 16(2), pages 115-135, April.
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    9. Pablo-Romero, María del P. & De Jesús, Josué, 2016. "Economic growth and energy consumption: The Energy-Environmental Kuznets Curve for Latin America and the Caribbean," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 1343-1350.
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    13. Elmarzougui, Eskandar & Larue, Bruno & Tamini, Lota, D., 2013. "The Environment, Trade Openness, and Domestic and Foreign Investments," MPRA Paper 61332, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2014.
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    17. Ching-Yao Irene Lai & C.C. Yang, 2014. "Scale Effect Versus Induced Policy Response In The Environmental Kuznets Curve: The Case Of U.S. Water Pollution," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 32(2), pages 435-450, April.
    18. Menegaki, Angeliki N. & Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P., 2015. "Rich enough to go renewable, but too early to leave fossil energy?," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 1465-1477.

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