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Geopolitics of European natural gas demand: Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East


  • Bilgin, Mert


This paper addresses issues of natural gas which raise questions about European energy security. It first focuses on the rising gas demand of the EU27 and elaborates alleged risks of dependence on Russia such as Gazprom's disagreement with Ukraine, which became an international gas crisis in January 2006 and also more recently in January 2009. Incentives and barriers of Europe's further cooperation with selected Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Middle Eastern (Iran, Iraq and Egypt) countries are discussed. Supplies from Caspian are analyzed with a particular focus on Russia's role and the vested interests in the region. Supplies from the Middle East are elaborated with regard to Iran's huge and Iraq's emerging potentials in terms of natural gas reserves and foreign direct investments in the energy sector. The geopolitical analysis leads to a conclusion that the best strategy, and what seems more likely, for the EU is to include at least two countries from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Iraq within its natural gas supply system.

Suggested Citation

  • Bilgin, Mert, 2009. "Geopolitics of European natural gas demand: Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4482-4492, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:37:y:2009:i:11:p:4482-4492

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    2. Kiriyama, Eriko & Kajikawa, Yuya, 2014. "A multilayered analysis of energy security research and the energy supply process," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 415-423.
    3. Julien Vercueil, 2017. "La Russie et l'Union Européenne. Une relation nécessaire, mais non suffisante," Working Papers hal-01552608, HAL.
    4. Tavana, Madjid & Behzadian, Majid & Pirdashti, Mohsen & Pirdashti, Hasan, 2013. "A PROMETHEE-GDSS for oil and gas pipeline planning in the Caspian Sea basin," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 716-728.
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    13. Wang, Qiang & Chen, Xi & Jha, Awadhesh N. & Rogers, Howard, 2014. "Natural gas from shale formation – The evolution, evidences and challenges of shale gas revolution in United States," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 1-28.
    14. Zaifu Yang & Rong Zhang & Zongyi Zhang, 2013. "Revisiting Jansen et al.'s Modified Cournot Model of the European Union Natural Gas Market," Discussion Papers 13/12, Department of Economics, University of York.
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    18. Deane, J.P. & Ó Ciaráin, M. & Ó Gallachóir, B.P., 2017. "An integrated gas and electricity model of the EU energy system to examine supply interruptions," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 193(C), pages 479-490.
    19. Mingqi Zhang & Meirong Su & Weiwei Lu & Chunhua Su, 2015. "An Assessment of the Security of China’s Natural Gas Supply System Using Two Network Models," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(12), pages 1-16, December.
    20. Zaifu Yang & Rong Zhang & Zongyi Zhang, 2016. "An Exploration of a Strategic Competition Model for the European Union Natural Gas Market," Discussion Papers 16/06, Department of Economics, University of York.
    21. Tavana, Madjid & Pirdashti, Mohsen & Kennedy, Dennis T. & Belaud, Jean-Pierre & Behzadian, Majid, 2012. "A hybrid Delphi-SWOT paradigm for oil and gas pipeline strategic planning in Caspian Sea basin," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 345-360.
    22. Yang, Zaifu & Zhang, Rong & Zhang, Zongyi, 2016. "An exploration of a strategic competition model for the European Union natural gas market," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 236-242.
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    25. Karatayev, Marat & Clarke, Michèle L., 2016. "A review of current energy systems and green energy potential in Kazakhstan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 491-504.


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