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Geopolitics of European natural gas demand: Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East

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  • Bilgin, Mert

Abstract

This paper addresses issues of natural gas which raise questions about European energy security. It first focuses on the rising gas demand of the EU27 and elaborates alleged risks of dependence on Russia such as Gazprom's disagreement with Ukraine, which became an international gas crisis in January 2006 and also more recently in January 2009. Incentives and barriers of Europe's further cooperation with selected Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Middle Eastern (Iran, Iraq and Egypt) countries are discussed. Supplies from Caspian are analyzed with a particular focus on Russia's role and the vested interests in the region. Supplies from the Middle East are elaborated with regard to Iran's huge and Iraq's emerging potentials in terms of natural gas reserves and foreign direct investments in the energy sector. The geopolitical analysis leads to a conclusion that the best strategy, and what seems more likely, for the EU is to include at least two countries from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Iraq within its natural gas supply system.

Suggested Citation

  • Bilgin, Mert, 2009. "Geopolitics of European natural gas demand: Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4482-4492, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:37:y:2009:i:11:p:4482-4492
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Lu, Weiwei & Su, Meirong & Fath, Brian D. & Zhang, Mingqi & Hao, Yan, 2016. "A systematic method of evaluation of the Chinese natural gas supply security," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 165(C), pages 858-867.
    2. Kiriyama, Eriko & Kajikawa, Yuya, 2014. "A multilayered analysis of energy security research and the energy supply process," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 415-423.
    3. Julien Vercueil, 2017. "La Russie et l'Union Européenne. Une relation nécessaire, mais non suffisante," Working Papers hal-01552608, HAL.
    4. Tavana, Madjid & Behzadian, Majid & Pirdashti, Mohsen & Pirdashti, Hasan, 2013. "A PROMETHEE-GDSS for oil and gas pipeline planning in the Caspian Sea basin," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 716-728.
    5. Mathias Reymond, 2014. "Why ECO countries could become energy-dependent?," 2nd International Conference on Energy, Regional Integration and Socio-Economic Development 7722, EcoMod.
    6. Samir Balakishi, 2016. "Eurasian Economic Union: Russia’s New Foreign Policy in the South Caucasus," Working Papers 2016/1, Maastricht School of Management.
    7. Ruble, Isabella, 2017. "European Union energy supply security: The benefits of natural gas imports from the Eastern Mediterranean," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 341-353.
    8. Melikoglu, Mehmet, 2013. "Vision 2023: Forecasting Turkey's natural gas demand between 2013 and 2030," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 393-400.
    9. Psarras, John, 2016. "Multicriteria decision support to evaluate potential long-term natural gas supply alternatives: The case of GreeceAuthor-Name: Androulaki, Stella," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 253(3), pages 791-810.
    10. Mushtaq, Faisal & Mat, Ramli & Ani, Farid Nasir, 2014. "A review on microwave assisted pyrolysis of coal and biomass for fuel production," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 555-574.
    11. Augutis, Juozas & Krikstolaitis, Ricardas & Martisauskas, Linas & Peciulyte, Sigita, 2012. "Energy security level assessment technology," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 143-149.
    12. Flouri, Maria & Karakosta, Charikleia & Kladouchou, Charikleia & Psarras, John, 2015. "How does a natural gas supply interruption affect the EU gas security? A Monte Carlo simulation," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 785-796.
    13. Wang, Qiang & Chen, Xi & Jha, Awadhesh N. & Rogers, Howard, 2014. "Natural gas from shale formation – The evolution, evidences and challenges of shale gas revolution in United States," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 1-28.
    14. Zaifu Yang & Rong Zhang & Zongyi Zhang, 2013. "Revisiting Jansen et al.'s Modified Cournot Model of the European Union Natural Gas Market," Discussion Papers 13/12, Department of Economics, University of York.
    15. repec:gam:jeners:v:8:y:2015:i:12:p:13710-13725:d:59837 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Cobanli, Onur, 2014. "Central Asian gas in Eurasian power game," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 348-370.
    17. Devlin, Joseph & Li, Kang & Higgins, Paraic & Foley, Aoife, 2017. "Gas generation and wind power: A review of unlikely allies in the United Kingdom and Ireland," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 757-768.
    18. Deane, J.P. & Ó Ciaráin, M. & Ó Gallachóir, B.P., 2017. "An integrated gas and electricity model of the EU energy system to examine supply interruptions," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 193(C), pages 479-490.
    19. Mingqi Zhang & Meirong Su & Weiwei Lu & Chunhua Su, 2015. "An Assessment of the Security of China’s Natural Gas Supply System Using Two Network Models," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(12), pages 1-16, December.
    20. Zaifu Yang & Rong Zhang & Zongyi Zhang, 2016. "An Exploration of a Strategic Competition Model for the European Union Natural Gas Market," Discussion Papers 16/06, Department of Economics, University of York.
    21. Tavana, Madjid & Pirdashti, Mohsen & Kennedy, Dennis T. & Belaud, Jean-Pierre & Behzadian, Majid, 2012. "A hybrid Delphi-SWOT paradigm for oil and gas pipeline strategic planning in Caspian Sea basin," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 345-360.
    22. Yang, Zaifu & Zhang, Rong & Zhang, Zongyi, 2016. "An exploration of a strategic competition model for the European Union natural gas market," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 236-242.
    23. repec:eee:enepol:v:107:y:2017:i:c:p:539-547 is not listed on IDEAS
    24. Jansen, Thijs & van Lier, Arie & van Witteloostuijn, Arjen & Boon von Ochssée, Tim, 2012. "A modified Cournot model of the natural gas market in the European Union: Mixed-motives delegation in a politicized environment," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 280-285.
    25. Karatayev, Marat & Clarke, Michèle L., 2016. "A review of current energy systems and green energy potential in Kazakhstan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 491-504.

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