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Advertising strategies in a franchise system


  • Sigué, Simon Pierre
  • Chintagunta, Pradeep


The main question of this research is: Who should undertake promotional and brand-image advertising if the franchisor and franchisees act so as to maximize their respective profits? To address this question, we study a two-stage advertising game between a franchisor and two adjacent franchisees. In the first stage of the game, the franchisor chooses between three advertising models - centralizing or delegating the two types of advertising to the franchisees or delegating only promotional advertising. In the second stage, given the franchisor's choice of an advertising model, the two franchisees decide whether or not to cooperate. Our main findings are that (1) the franchisees should cooperate if the franchisor delegates either both brand-image and promotional advertising or promotional advertising, although cooperation between franchisees does not necessary improve the franchisor's profits. (2) The choice of an advertising arrangement critically depends on the margins as well as the costs of performing both promotional and brand-image advertising. We also discuss the conditions under which the three advertising models should be implemented.

Suggested Citation

  • Sigué, Simon Pierre & Chintagunta, Pradeep, 2009. "Advertising strategies in a franchise system," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 198(2), pages 655-665, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ejores:v:198:y:2009:i:2:p:655-665

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Pradeep K. Chintagunta & Dipak Jain, 1992. "A Dynamic Model of Channel Member Strategies for Marketing Expenditures," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 11(2), pages 168-188.
    2. Rajiv Lal, 1990. "Improving Channel Coordination Through Franchising," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 9(4), pages 299-318.
    3. Norton, Seth W, 1988. "An Empirical Look at Franchising as an Organizational Form," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 61(2), pages 197-218, April.
    4. Preyas S. Desai, 1997. "Advertising Fee in Business-Format Franchising," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 43(10), pages 1401-1419, October.
    5. Rubin, Paul H, 1978. "The Theory of the Firm and the Structure of the Franchise Contract," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 223-233, April.
    6. Gary M. Erickson, 1992. "Empirical Analysis of Closed-Loop Duopoly Advertising Strategies," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 38(12), pages 1732-1749, December.
    7. Jorgensen, Steffen & Taboubi, Sihem & Zaccour, Georges, 2003. "Retail promotions with negative brand image effects: Is cooperation possible?," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 150(2), pages 395-405, October.
    8. Mathewson, G Frank & Winter, Ralph A, 1985. "The Economics of Franchise Contracts," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 28(3), pages 503-526, October.
    9. George J. Stigler, 1951. "The Division of Labor is Limited by the Extent of the Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59, pages 185-185.
    10. Wujin Chu & Preyas S. Desai, 1995. "Channel Coordination Mechanisms for Customer Satisfaction," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 14(4), pages 343-359.
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    Cited by:

    1. Fuxiao Lu & Guowei Liu & Jianxiong Zhang & Wansheng Tang, 2016. "Benefits of partial myopia in a durable product supply chain considering pricing and advertising," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 67(10), pages 1309-1324, October.
    2. Xing, Dahai & Liu, Tieming, 2012. "Sales effort free riding and coordination with price match and channel rebate," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 219(2), pages 264-271.
    3. Martín-Herrán, Guiomar & Sigué, Simon P., 2017. "An integrative framework of cooperative advertising: Should manufacturers continuously support retailer advertising?," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 67-73.
    4. Martín-Herrán, Guiomar & Sigué, Simon Pierre & Zaccour, Georges, 2011. "Strategic interactions in traditional franchise systems: Are franchisors always better off?," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 213(3), pages 526-537, September.
    5. Aust, Gerhard & Buscher, Udo, 2014. "Cooperative advertising models in supply chain management: A review," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 234(1), pages 1-14.
    6. repec:wsi:ijitdm:v:16:y:2017:i:04:n:s0219622014400045 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. repec:ehu:cuader:24429 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Jana Vaškovičová, 2010. "Franchise fees in practice," Ekonomika a Management, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2010(1).
    9. Zhang, Juan & Gou, Qinglong & Liang, Liang & Huang, Zhimin, 2013. "Supply chain coordination through cooperative advertising with reference price effect," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 345-353.
    10. Jørgensen, Steffen & Zaccour, Georges, 2014. "A survey of game-theoretic models of cooperative advertising," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 237(1), pages 1-14.
    11. Karray, Salma & Sigué, Simon Pierre, 2015. "A game-theoretic model for co-promotions: Choosing a complementary versus an independent product ally," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 84-100.
    12. Huang, Jian & Leng, Mingming & Liang, Liping, 2012. "Recent developments in dynamic advertising research," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 220(3), pages 591-609.
    13. Juan Zhang & Qinglong Gou & Susan Li & Zhimin Huang, 2017. "Cooperative Advertising with Accrual Rate in a Dynamic Supply Chain," Dynamic Games and Applications, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 112-130, March.
    14. Liu, Guowei & Zhang, Jianxiong & Tang, Wansheng, 2015. "Strategic transfer pricing in a marketing–operations interface with quality level and advertising dependent goodwill," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 1-15.


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