Testosterone is associated with self-employment among Australian men
Testosterone has pronounced effects on men's physiological development and smaller, more nuanced, impacts on their economic behavior. In this study of 1199 Australian adult males, we investigate the relationship between the self-employed and their serum testosterone levels. Because prior studies have identified that testosterone is a hormone that is responsive to external factors (e.g. competition, risk-taking), we explicitly control for omitted variable bias and reverse causality by using an instrumental variable approach. We use insulin as our primary instrument to account for endogeneity between testosterone and self-employment. This is because prior research has identified a relationship between insulin and testosterone but not between insulin and self-employment. Our results show that there is a positive association between total testosterone and self-employment. Robustness checks using bioavailable testosterone and another similar instrument (daily alcohol consumption) confirm this positive finding.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bruno S. Frey & Matthias Benz, "undated".
"Being Independent is a Great Thing: Subjective Evaluations of Self-Employment and Hierarchy,"
IEW - Working Papers
135, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
- Matthias Benz & Bruno S. Frey, 2008. "Being Independent is a Great Thing: Subjective Evaluations of Self-Employment and Hierarchy," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 75(298), pages 362-383, 05.
- Bruno S. Frey & Matthias Benz, 2003. "Being Independent is a Great Thing: Subjective Evaluations of Self-Employment and Hierarchy," CESifo Working Paper Series 959, CESifo Group Munich.
- Nicos Nicolaou & Scott Shane & Lynn Cherkas & Janice Hunkin & Tim D. Spector, 2008. "Is the Tendency to Engage in Entrepreneurship Genetic?," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 54(1), pages 167-179, January.
- Robert E. Lucas Jr., 1978. "On the Size Distribution of Business Firms," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 9(2), pages 508-523, Autumn.
- White, Roderick E. & Thornhill, Stewart & Hampson, Elizabeth, 2006. "Entrepreneurs and evolutionary biology: The relationship between testosterone and new venture creation," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 21-34, May.
- Ehsan Latif, 2009. "The impact of diabetes on employment in Canada," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(5), pages 577-589.
- Cem Baslevent, 2002. "Preference of the unemployed between full-time and part-time jobs," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(13), pages 855-857.
- Parker, Simon C., 2005.
"Entrepreneurship Among Married Couples in the United States: A Simultaneous Probit Approach,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1712, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Parker, Simon C., 2008. "Entrepreneurship among married couples in the United States: A simultaneous probit approach," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 459-481, June.
- Gavin Cassar, 2007. "Money, money, money? A longitudinal investigation of entrepreneur career reasons, growth preferences and achieved growth," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(1), pages 89-107, January.
- John Baffoe-Bonnie, 2003. "Incidence and Duration of Unemployment Spells: Implications on the Wage Differentials of Part-Time and Full-Time Workers," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 21(2), pages 227-242, 04.
- Mats Hammarstedt, 2001. "Immigrant self-employment in Sweden - its variation and some possible determinants," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 147-161, April.
- Andrew Henley, 2007. "Entrepreneurial aspiration and transition into self-employment: evidence from British longitudinal data," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 253-280, May.
- Justin van der Sluis & Mirjam van Praag & Wim Vijverberg, 2005. "Entrepreneurship Selection and Performance: A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Education in Developing Economies," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 19(2), pages 225-261.
- Birley, Sue & Westhead, Paul, 1994. "A taxonomy of business start-up reasons and their impact on firm growth and size," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 7-31, January.
- Zhang, Zhen & Zyphur, Michael J. & Narayanan, Jayanth & Arvey, Richard D. & Chaturvedi, Sankalp & Avolio, Bruce J. & Lichtenstein, Paul & Larsson, Gerry, 2009. "The genetic basis of entrepreneurship: Effects of gender and personality," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 110(2), pages 93-107, November.
- Saad, Gad & Vongas, John G., 2009. "The effect of conspicuous consumption on men's testosterone levels," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 110(2), pages 80-92, November.
- Zyphur, Michael J. & Narayanan, Jayanth & Koh, Gerald & Koh, David, 2009. "Testosterone-status mismatch lowers collective efficacy in groups: Evidence from a slope-as-predictor multilevel structural equation model," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 110(2), pages 70-79, November.
- Kenneth Clark & Stephen Drinkwater & Derek Leslie, 1998. "Ethnicity and self-employment earnings in Britain 1973-95," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(10), pages 631-634.
- Parker, Simon C. & van Praag, C. Mirjam, 2006. "Schooling, Capital Constraints, and Entrepreneurial Performance: The Endogenous Triangle," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 24, pages 416-431, October.
- Nicolaou, Nicos & Shane, Scott, 2010. "Entrepreneurship and occupational choice: Genetic and environmental influences," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 3-14, October.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ehbiol:v:13:y:2014:i:c:p:76-84. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.