Liquidity risk, economic development, and the effects of monetary policy
Empirical evidence indicates that monetary policy is not super-neutral in many countries. In particular, in high inflation economies, inflation is negatively related to economic activity. By comparison, inflation may be positively correlated with output in low inflation countries. We present a neoclassical growth model with money in which the incidence of liquidity risk is inversely related to aggregate capital formation. Interestingly, there may be multiple monetary steady-states where the effects of monetary policy vary. In poor economies, the financial system is highly distorted and higher rates of money growth are associated with less capital formation. In contrast, in advanced economies, a Tobin effect is observed. Since inflation exacerbates distortions from a coordination failure in the low-capital steady-state, individuals become much more exposed to liquidity risk. Consequently, optimal monetary policy depends on the level of development.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Paul Gertler & Jonathan Gruber, 2002.
"Insuring Consumption Against Illness,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 92(1), pages 51-70, March.
- Paul Gertler & Jonathan Gruber, 1998. "Insuring Consumption Against Illness," JCPR Working Papers 41, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
- Paul Gertler & Jonathan Gruber, 1997. "Insuring Consumption Against Illness," NBER Working Papers 6035, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Murphy, Kevin M. & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1989.
"Industrialization and the Big Push,"
3606235, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Michael Bruno & William Easterly, 1995.
"Inflation Crises and Long-Run Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
5209, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert J. Barro, 1995.
"Inflation and Economic Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
5326, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bae, Sang-Kun & Ratti, Ronald A., 2000. "Long-run neutrality, high inflation, and bank insolvencies in Argentina and Brazil," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 581-604, December.
- Townsend, Robert M, 1987. "Economic Organization with Limited Communication," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(5), pages 954-71, December.
- Russell Cooper & Andrew John, 1988. "Coordinating Coordination Failures in Keynesian Models," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 103(3), pages 441-463.
- Foster, James E. & Shorrocks, Anthony F., 1988. "Inequality and poverty orderings," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(2-3), pages 654-661, March.
- Douglas W. Diamond & Philip H. Dybvig, 2000.
"Bank runs, deposit insurance, and liquidity,"
Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Win, pages 14-23.
- Gaetano Antinolfi & Claudia M. Landeo & Maxim Nikitin, 2007. "Dollarization and the inflation threshold," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 40(2), pages 628-649, May.
- Bullard, James & Keating, John W., 1995. "The long-run relationship between inflation and output in postwar economies," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 477-496, December.
- Stacey L. Schreft & Bruce D. Smith, 1994.
"Money, banking, and capital formation,"
94-05, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
- Foster, James E & Shorrocks, Anthony F, 1988. "Poverty Orderings," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(1), pages 173-77, January.
- Bencivenga, V.R. & Smith, B.D., 1988.
"Financial Intermediation And Endogenous Growth,"
RCER Working Papers
124, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
- P. Diamond, 1980.
"Aggregate Demand Management in Search Equilibrium,"
268, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- McPeak, John, 2006. "Confronting the risk of asset loss: What role do livestock transfers in northern Kenya play?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 415-437, December.
- Shaghil Ahmed & John H. Rogers, 1998.
"Inflation and the great ratios: long-term evidence from the U.S,"
International Finance Discussion Papers
628, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Ahmed, Shaghil & Rogers, John H., 2000. "Inflation and the great ratios: Long term evidence from the U.S," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 3-35, February.
- Hanan G. Jacoby & Emmanuel Skoufias, 1997. "Risk, Financial Markets, and Human Capital in a Developing Country," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(3), pages 311-335.
- Drazen, Allan, 1987. "Reciprocal externality models of low employment," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(1-2), pages 436-443.
- Gaetano Antinolfi & Todd Keister, 2003.
"Discount Window Policy, Banking Crises, and Indeterminacy of Equilibrium,"
0305, Centro de Investigacion Economica, ITAM.
- Antinolfi, Gaetano & Keister, Todd, 2006. "Discount Window Policy, Banking Crises, And Indeterminacy Of Equilibrium," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(01), pages 1-19, February.
- Kochar, Anjini, 2004. "Ill-health, savings and portfolio choices in developing economies," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 257-285, February.
- Hadar, Josef & Russell, William R, 1969. "Rules for Ordering Uncertain Prospects," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(1), pages 25-34, March.
- Stanley Fischer, 1993.
"The Role of Macroeconomic Factors in Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
4565, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Boyd, John H. & Levine, Ross & Smith, Bruce D., 2001. "The impact of inflation on financial sector performance," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 221-248, April.
- Bishop, John A. & Formby, John P. & Thistle, Paul D., 1991. "Rank dominance and international comparisons of income distributions," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1399-1409, October.
- Joseph H. Haslag & Joydeep Bhattacharya & Antoine Martin, 2007. "Money, output and the payment system: Optimal monetary policy in a model with hidden effort," Working Papers 0704, Department of Economics, University of Missouri.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:eecrev:v:54:y:2010:i:2:p:252-268. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.