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A regularization approach to the many instruments problem

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  • Carrasco, Marine

Abstract

This paper focuses on the estimation of a finite dimensional parameter in a linear model where the number of instruments is very large or infinite. In order to improve the small sample properties of standard instrumental variable (IV) estimators, we propose three modified IV estimators based on three different ways of inverting the covariance matrix of the instruments. These inverses involve a regularization or smoothing parameter. It should be stressed that no restriction on the number of instruments is needed and that all the instruments are used in the estimation. We show that the three estimators are asymptotically normal and attain the semiparametric efficiency bound. Higher-order analysis of the MSE reveals that the bias of the modified estimators does not depend on the number of instruments. Finally, we suggest a data-driven method for selecting the regularization parameter. Interestingly, our regularization techniques lead to a consistent nonparametric estimation of the optimal instrument.

Suggested Citation

  • Carrasco, Marine, 2012. "A regularization approach to the many instruments problem," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 170(2), pages 383-398.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:econom:v:170:y:2012:i:2:p:383-398
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jeconom.2012.05.012
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Guy Tchuente, 2016. "Estimation of social interaction models using regularization," Studies in Economics 1607, School of Economics, University of Kent.
    2. Zhu, Ying, 2015. "Sparse Linear Models and l1−Regularized 2SLS with High-Dimensional Endogenous Regressors and Instruments," MPRA Paper 81217, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Cheng, Xu & Liao, Zhipeng, 2015. "Select the valid and relevant moments: An information-based LASSO for GMM with many moments," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 186(2), pages 443-464.
    4. Carrasco, Marine & Tchuente, Guy, 2015. "Regularized LIML for many instruments," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 186(2), pages 427-442.
    5. Victor Chernozhukov & Christian Hansen & Martin Spindler, 2015. "Valid Post-Selection and Post-Regularization Inference: An Elementary, General Approach," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 7(1), pages 649-688, August.
    6. Chiara Farronato & Andrey Fradkin, 2018. "The Welfare Effects of Peer Entry in the Accommodation Market: The Case of Airbnb," NBER Working Papers 24361, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Marine Carrasco & Guy Tchuente, 2016. "Efficient Estimation with Many Weak Instruments Using Regularization Techniques," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(8-10), pages 1609-1637, December.
    8. Hansen, Christian & Kozbur, Damian, 2014. "Instrumental variables estimation with many weak instruments using regularized JIVE," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 182(2), pages 290-308.
    9. Liu, Chu-An & Tao, Jing, 2016. "Model selection and model averaging in nonparametric instrumental variables models," MPRA Paper 69492, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. A. Belloni & D. Chen & V. Chernozhukov & C. Hansen, 2012. "Sparse Models and Methods for Optimal Instruments With an Application to Eminent Domain," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 80(6), pages 2369-2429, November.
    11. Nam-Hyun Kim & Winfried Pohlmeier, 2015. "A Regularization Approach to Biased Two-Stage Least Squares Estimation," Working Paper series 15-22, Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.
    12. Carrasco, Marine & Kotchoni, Rachidi, 2017. "Efficient Estimation Using The Characteristic Function," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 33(02), pages 479-526, April.
    13. Victor Chernozhukov & Christian Hansen & Martin Spindler, 2015. "Post-Selection and Post-Regularization Inference in Linear Models with Many Controls and Instruments," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 105(5), pages 486-490, May.
    14. Su, Liangjun & White, Halbert, 2014. "Testing conditional independence via empirical likelihood," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 182(1), pages 27-44.
    15. repec:eee:econom:v:204:y:2018:i:1:p:86-100 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Prosper Donovon & Alastair R. Hall, 2015. "GMM and Indirect Inference: An appraisal of their connections and new results on their properties under second order identification," The School of Economics Discussion Paper Series 1505, Economics, The University of Manchester.
    17. Zhu, Ying, 2013. "Sparse Linear Models and Two-Stage Estimation in High-Dimensional Settings with Possibly Many Endogenous Regressors," MPRA Paper 49846, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Pierre Chausse, 2017. "Regularized Empirical Likelihood as a Solution to the No Moment," Working Papers 1708, University of Waterloo, Department of Economics, revised Nov 2017.
    19. Kuersteiner, Guido M., 2012. "Kernel-weighted GMM estimators for linear time series models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 170(2), pages 399-421.
    20. Yoonseok Lee & Yu Zhou, 2015. "Averaged Instrumental Variables Estimators," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 180, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
    21. Xu Cheng & Zhipeng Liao, 2012. "Select the Valid and Relevant Moments: A One-Step Procedure for GMM with Many Moments," PIER Working Paper Archive 12-045, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
    22. Cazals, Catherine & Fève, Frédérique & Florens, Jean-Pierre & Simar, Léopold, 2016. "Nonparametric instrumental variables estimation for efficiency frontier," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 190(2), pages 349-359.
    23. Mardi Dungey & Vitali Alexeev & Jing Tian & Alastair R. Hall, 2015. "Econometricians Have Their Moments: GMM at 32," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 91, pages 1-24, June.

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