IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/ecolec/v130y2016icp209-220.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The implementation costs of forest conservation policies in Brazil

Author

Listed:
  • Cunha, Felipe Arias Fogliano de Souza
  • Börner, Jan
  • Wunder, Sven
  • Cosenza, Carlos Alberto Nunes
  • Lucena, André F.P.

Abstract

Tropical forest conservation is considered a low-cost option for climate change mitigation. But mitigation cost assessments have featured opportunity costs, neglecting policy implementation costs. Here we use official data to identify the Brazilian federal government's operational and institutional budgets related to forest conservation policies implemented from 2000 to 2014. We distinguish the allocated and executed budgets of these policies, and provide scenario-based estimates of their cost-effectiveness. On average, Brazil spent US$ 1billion/year on forest conservation policies at the federal level. Brazil's substantial reduction in annual forest loss after 2004 was accompanied by a higher operational budget execution of disincentive-based policy instruments, and an absolute increase in both allocated and executed institutional budgets. The post-2004 successful mitigation effort represented additional implementation costs to the Brazilian federal government of US$ 308–923/ha of avoided deforestation, or US$ 0.87–2.60/tCO2 of avoided emissions. Factoring in also approximate municipal and state expenditures, these costs increase to US$ 385–1153/ha or US$ 1.09–3.25/tCO2. We conclude that implementations costs are non-trivial in size, including compared to estimates of land users' opportunity costs. This has important implications for REDD+ policy design, in the sense that implementation costs need to be adequately considered.

Suggested Citation

  • Cunha, Felipe Arias Fogliano de Souza & Börner, Jan & Wunder, Sven & Cosenza, Carlos Alberto Nunes & Lucena, André F.P., 2016. "The implementation costs of forest conservation policies in Brazil," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 130(C), pages 209-220.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:130:y:2016:i:c:p:209-220
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016.07.007
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800915301270
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Dang Phan, Thu-Ha & Brouwer, Roy & Davidson, Marc, 2014. "The economic costs of avoided deforestation in the developing world: A meta-analysis," Journal of Forest Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 1-16.
    2. Riera, Pere & Aranda, Leticia & Mavsar, Robert, 2007. "Efficiency and equity of forest policies: A graphic analysis using the partial equilibrium framework," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(7), pages 852-861, April.
    3. McDermott, Constance L. & Irland, Lloyd C. & Pacheco, Pablo, 2015. "Forest certification and legality initiatives in the Brazilian Amazon: Lessons for effective and equitable forest governance," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 134-142.
    4. Pinto, Luís Fernando Guedes & Gardner, Toby & McDermott, Constance L. & Ayub, Karim Omar Lara, 2014. "Group certification supports an increase in the diversity of sustainable agriculture network–rainforest alliance certified coffee producers in Brazil," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 59-64.
    5. L'Roe, Jessica & Naughton-Treves, Lisa, 2014. "Effects of a policy-induced income shock on forest-dependent households in the Peruvian Amazon," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 1-9.
    6. Jorge Hargrave & Krisztina Kis-Katos, 2013. "Economic Causes of Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Panel Data Analysis for the 2000s," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 54(4), pages 471-494, April.
    7. Fabian Kesicki & Paul Ekins, 2012. "Marginal abatement cost curves: a call for caution," Climate Policy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 219-236, March.
    8. Cacho, Oscar J. & Milne, Sarah & Gonzalez, Ricardo & Tacconi, Luca, 2014. "Benefits and costs of deforestation by smallholders: Implications for forest conservation and climate policy," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 321-332.
    9. V. Bellassen & V. Gitz, 2008. "Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Cameroon - Assessing costs and benefits," Post-Print hal-00716370, HAL.
    10. Börner, Jan & Wunder, Sven & Wertz-Kanounnikoff, Sheila & Tito, Marcos Rügnitz & Pereira, Ligia & Nascimento, Nathalia, 2010. "Direct conservation payments in the Brazilian Amazon: Scope and equity implications," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(6), pages 1272-1282, April.
    11. Assunção, Juliano & Gandour, Clarissa & Rocha, Rudi, 2015. "Deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon: prices or policies?," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(06), pages 697-722, December.
    12. Pagiola, Stefano & Bosquet, Benoit, 2009. "Estimating the costs of REDD at the country level," MPRA Paper 13726, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Barua, Sepul K. & Uusivuori, Jussi & Kuuluvainen, Jari, 2012. "Impacts of carbon-based policy instruments and taxes on tropical deforestation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 211-219.
    14. Irawan, Silvia & Tacconi, Luca & Ring, Irene, 2013. "Stakeholders' incentives for land-use change and REDD+: The case of Indonesia," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 75-83.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:ecolec:v:148:y:2018:i:c:p:92-102 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:spr:masfgc:v:23:y:2018:i:6:d:10.1007_s11027-017-9768-6 is not listed on IDEAS

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:130:y:2016:i:c:p:209-220. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ecolecon .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.