IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Macroeconomic relevance of credit channels: Evidence from an emerging economy under inflation targeting


  • Auel, Matias Carlos
  • de Mendonça, Helder Ferreira


This article presents a contribution to the empirical literature concerning credit channels in emerging economies. Based on data from 2002 to 2009, three sets of GMM models are considered in this article for analyzing the macroeconomic relevance of the credit channels in Brazil: (i) the first set analyzes the effects of shocks on economic variables which are essential for credit supply; (ii) the second set considers the effects of the same variables used in the previous case on credit spread; and (iii) the third set takes into account the effects of changes in the credit market conditions on the product. In addition, with the intention of showing the effects of shocks on the variables which are relevant in the GMM models for credit supply, spread, and product, a VAR analysis is made. Finally, with the objective of testing the results, a GMM system model is built. The findings denote that the effects of economic shocks on credit supply and on credit spread are in accordance with the credit channel theory. In particular, it is observed that shocks on the interest rate are not transmitted directly to the economy but through the credit channels.

Suggested Citation

  • Auel, Matias Carlos & de Mendonça, Helder Ferreira, 2011. "Macroeconomic relevance of credit channels: Evidence from an emerging economy under inflation targeting," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 965-979, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecmode:v:28:y:2011:i:3:p:965-979

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-1054, July.
    2. Mark Gertler & Simon Gilchrist, 1994. "Monetary Policy, Business Cycles, and the Behavior of Small Manufacturing Firms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(2), pages 309-340.
    3. Joel Bogdanski & Alexandre Antonio Tombini & Sergio R. Da C. Werlang, 2001. "Implementing Inflation Targeting in Brazil," Money Affairs, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, vol. 0(1), pages 1-23, January-J.
    4. Helder Ferreira de Mendonca & Rubens Teixeira da Silva, 2009. "Fiscal effect from inflation targeting: the Brazilian experience," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(7), pages 885-897.
    5. Bernanke, Ben S & Blinder, Alan S, 1992. "The Federal Funds Rate and the Channels of Monetary Transmission," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(4), pages 901-921, September.
    6. Stephen D. Oliner & Glenn D. Rudebusch, 1996. "Is there a broad credit channel for monetary policy?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, pages 3-13.
    7. Iacoviello, Matteo & Minetti, Raoul, 2008. "The credit channel of monetary policy: Evidence from the housing market," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 69-96, March.
    8. Ben S. Bernanke & Mark Gertler, 1995. "Inside the Black Box: The Credit Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 27-48, Fall.
    9. Jeremy C. Stein & Anil K. Kashyap, 2000. "What Do a Million Observations on Banks Say about the Transmission of Monetary Policy?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(3), pages 407-428, June.
    10. Benjamin M. Friedman & Kenneth N. Kuttner, 1993. "Economic Activity and the Short-term Credit Markets: An Analysis of Prices and Quantities," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 24(2), pages 193-284.
    11. Greenwald, Bruce & Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1984. "Informational Imperfections in the Capital Market and Macroeconomic Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(2), pages 194-199, May.
    12. Michael Ehrmann & Leonardo Gambacorta & Jorge Mart�nez-Pag�s & Patrick Sevestre & Andreas Worms, 2001. "Fynancial Systems and the Role of Banks in Monetary Policy Transmission in the Euro area," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 432, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    13. Bernanke, Ben S, 1983. "Nonmonetary Effects of the Financial Crisis in Propagation of the Great Depression," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(3), pages 257-276, June.
    14. Kashyap, Anil K & Stein, Jeremy C & Wilcox, David W, 1993. "Monetary Policy and Credit Conditions: Evidence from the Composition of External Finance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 78-98, March.
    15. Koop, Gary & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Potter, Simon M., 1996. "Impulse response analysis in nonlinear multivariate models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 119-147, September.
    16. Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 2001. "Applications of Generalized Method of Moments Estimation," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(4), pages 87-100, Fall.
    17. Gertler, Mark & Gilchrist, Simon, 1993. " The Role of Credit Market Imperfections in the Monetary Transmission Mechanism: Arguments and Evidence," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(1), pages 43-64.
    18. Pesaran, H. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 1998. "Generalized impulse response analysis in linear multivariate models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 17-29, January.
    19. Ben S. Bernanke, 1993. "Credit in the macroeconomy," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Spr, pages 50-70.
    20. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
    21. Hallsten, Kerstin, 1998. "Bank Loans and the Transmission Mechanism of Monetary Policy," Working Paper Series 73, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Montes, Gabriel Caldas, 2013. "Credibility and monetary transmission channels under inflation targeting: An econometric analysis from a developing country," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 670-684.
    2. Montes, Gabriel Caldas & Assumpção, Antonio Carlos de Jesus, 2014. "Uma Nota Sobre o Papel da Credibilidade da Política Monetária e Fiscal: Evidências para o Brasil," Revista Brasileira de Economia - RBE, FGV/EPGE - Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil), vol. 68(4), October.
    3. Gabriel Barros Tavares Peixoto & Gabriel Caldas Montes, 2014. "Risk-Taking Channel, Bank Lendingchannel And The “Paradox Of Credibility”: Empirical Evidence For Brazil," Anais do XL Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 40th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 030, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    4. repec:fgv:epgrbe:v:68:y:2015:i:4:a:24609 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Helder Ferreira de Mendonça & Vitor R. C. Britto, 2017. "Interest rate and credit channel for households and firms: Evidence from a large emerging economy," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 37(1), pages 586-604.
    6. repec:fgv:epgrbe:v:67:n:3:a:5 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Montes, Gabriel Caldas & Tavares, Debora Pereira & Guillén, Osmani Teixeira de Carvalho, 2013. "Canal de Transmissão da Política Monetária Por Meio dos Seguros Contratados Pelo Setor Bancário," Revista Brasileira de Economia - RBE, FGV/EPGE - Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil), vol. 67(3), September.
    8. Montes, Gabriel Caldas & Peixoto, Gabriel Barros Tavares, 2014. "Risk-taking channel, bank lending channel and the “paradox of credibility”," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 82-94.
    9. Dejan Šoškić, 2015. "Inflation Targeting Challenges In Emerging Market Countries: The Case Of Serbia," Economic Annals, Faculty of Economics, University of Belgrade, vol. 60(204), pages 7-30, January –.
    10. Gabriel Caldas Montes & Caroline Cabral Machado, 2013. "Credibility and the credit channel transmission of monetary policy theoretical model and econometric analysis for Brazil," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 40(4), pages 469-492, August.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecmode:v:28:y:2011:i:3:p:965-979. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.