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Explaining dispersion in foreign exchange expectations: A heterogeneous agent approach

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  • Jongen, Ron
  • Verschoor, Willem F.C.
  • Wolff, Christian C.P.
  • Zwinkels, Remco C.J.

Abstract

This paper combines survey forecasts with a heterogeneous agent model to examine the dispersion of expectations of participants in the foreign exchange market. We find distinct variations in the level of dispersion and document that dispersion arises because of the combined effect of market participants holding private information and attaching different weights to fundamental, technical, and carry trade analyses. We estimate a heterogeneous agent model on the survey forecasts and show that the weight attached to the three forecast rules is adjusted over time in response to the relative importance of the rules in the actual foreign exchange market. The weights are related to market circumstances; the switching model is finally shown to outperform the random walk model in an out-of-sample forecast exercise.

Suggested Citation

  • Jongen, Ron & Verschoor, Willem F.C. & Wolff, Christian C.P. & Zwinkels, Remco C.J., 2012. "Explaining dispersion in foreign exchange expectations: A heterogeneous agent approach," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 719-735.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:dyncon:v:36:y:2012:i:5:p:719-735
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jedc.2012.01.005
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    Cited by:

    1. Markiewicz, Agnieszka & Pick, Andreas, 2014. "Adaptive learning and survey data," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 107(PB), pages 685-707.
    2. Beckmann, Joscha & Czudaj, Robert, 2017. "The impact of uncertainty on professional exchange rate forecasts," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 73(PB), pages 296-316.
    3. repec:eee:jimfin:v:74:y:2017:i:c:p:283-300 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Francesca Pancotto & Giuseppe Pignataro & Davide Raggi, 2015. "Social Learning and Higher Order Beliefs: A Structural Model of Exchange Rates Dynamics," LEM Papers Series 2015/24, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    5. ter Ellen, Saskia & Verschoor, Willem F.C. & Zwinkels, Remco C.J., 2013. "Dynamic expectation formation in the foreign exchange market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 75-97.
    6. Dick, Christian D. & MacDonald, Ronald & Menkhoff, Lukas, 2015. "Exchange rate forecasts and expected fundamentals," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 235-256.
    7. Francesca Pancotto & Filippo Maria Pericoli & Marco Pistagnesi, 2013. "Inefficiency in Survey Exchange Rates Forecasts," Working Papers 1/13, Sapienza University of Rome, DISS.
    8. Robert Dixon & Zhichao Zhang & Yang Dai, 2016. "Exchange Rate Flexibility in China: Measurement, Regime Shifts and Driving Forces of Change," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(5), pages 875-892, November.
    9. Yamamoto, Ryuichi & Hirata, Hideaki, 2013. "Strategy switching in the Japanese stock market," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(10), pages 2010-2022.
    10. He, Xue-Zhong & Zheng, Huanhuan, 2016. "Trading heterogeneity under information uncertainty," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 130(C), pages 64-80.
    11. Spronk, Richard & Verschoor, Willem F.C. & Zwinkels, Remco C.J., 2013. "Carry trade and foreign exchange rate puzzles," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 17-31.
    12. He, Kaijian & Wang, Lijun & Zou, Yingchao & Lai, Kin Keung, 2014. "Value at risk estimation with entropy-based wavelet analysis in exchange markets," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 408(C), pages 62-71.
    13. repec:kap:compec:v:51:y:2018:i:4:d:10.1007_s10614-016-9643-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Goldbaum, David & Zwinkels, Remco C.J., 2014. "An empirical examination of heterogeneity and switching in foreign exchange markets," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 107(PB), pages 667-684.
    15. Norman C. Miller, 2014. "Exchange Rate Economics," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14981.
    16. Dick, Christian D. & Menkhoff, Lukas, 2013. "Exchange rate expectations of chartists and fundamentalists," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 1362-1383.
    17. Anufriev, M. & Tuinstra, J. & Bao, T., 2013. "Fund Choice Behavior and Estimation of Switching Models: An Experiment," CeNDEF Working Papers 13-04, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Center for Nonlinear Dynamics in Economics and Finance.
    18. Beckmann, Joscha & Czudaj, Robert, 2017. "Exchange rate expectations since the financial crisis: Performance evaluation and the role of monetary policy and safe haven," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 283-300.
    19. Kunze, Frederik, 2017. "Predicting exchange rates in Asia: New insights on the accuracy of survey forecasts," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 326, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Chartists; Fundamentalists; Exchange rate forecasts; Heterogeneity; Dispersion of expectations; Survey data; Carry trade; Heterogeneous agent model;

    JEL classification:

    • F3 - International Economics - - International Finance
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates

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