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The composition of capital inflows when emerging market firms face financing constraints

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  • Smith, Katherine A.
  • Valderrama, Diego

Abstract

The composition of capital inflows to emerging market economies tends to follow a predictable dynamic pattern across the business cycle. In most emerging market economies, total inflows are pro-cyclical, with debt and portfolio equity flowing in first, followed later in the expansion by foreign direct investment (FDI). To understand the dynamic composition of these flows, we use a small open economy (SOE) framework to model the composition of capital inflows as the equilibrium outcome of emerging market firms' financing decisions. We show how costly external financing and FDI search costs generate a state contingent cost of financing such that the cheapest source of financing depends on the phase of the business cycle. In this manner, the financial frictions are able to explain the interaction between the types of flows and deliver a time-varying composition of flows, as well as other standard features of emerging market business cycles. If, as this work suggests, flows are an equilibrium outcome of firms' financing decisions, then volatility of capital inflows is not necessarily bad for an economy. Furthermore, using capital controls to shut down one type of flow and encourage another is certain to have both short- and long-run welfare implications.

Suggested Citation

  • Smith, Katherine A. & Valderrama, Diego, 2009. "The composition of capital inflows when emerging market firms face financing constraints," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(2), pages 223-234, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:deveco:v:89:y:2009:i:2:p:223-234
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    Cited by:

    1. Broto, Carmen & Díaz-Cassou, Javier & Erce, Aitor, 2011. "Measuring and explaining the volatility of capital flows to emerging countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 1941-1953, August.
    2. Calderón, César & Kubota, Megumi, 2013. "Sudden stops: Are global and local investors alike?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(1), pages 122-142.
    3. Diego Valderrama & Katherine Smith, 2009. "Why Do Emerging Economies Import Direct Investment and Export Savings? A Story of Financial Underdevelopment," 2009 Meeting Papers 1160, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    4. Contessi, Silvio & De Pace, Pierangelo & Francis, Johanna L., 2012. "Changes in the second-moment properties of disaggregated capital flows," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 122-127.
    5. Jinjarak, Yothin & Wongswan, Jon & Zheng, Huanhuan, 2011. "International fund investment and local market returns," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 572-587, March.
    6. Taeyoon Sung & Jong-Hee Kim, 2016. "Unconventional Monetary Policy, Global Liquidity Circulation, and Inflation Divergence around the World," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 54(1), pages 6-26, March.
    7. Lim, Jamus Jerome & Mohapatra, Sanket, 2016. "Quantitative easing and the post-crisis surge in financial flows to developing countries," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 331-357.
    8. Sayantan Bandhu Majumder & Ranjanendra Narayan Nag, 2016. "Understanding the Behaviour of Capital Flow and its Components: The Indian Experience," Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 10(3), pages 355-380, August.
    9. Katherine A. Smith, 2011. "Can Financing Constraints Explain The Asset Pricing Puzzles In Production Economies?," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 52(3), pages 739-765, August.
    10. Katheryn N. Russ & Diego Valderrama, 2009. "Financial Choice in a Non-Ricardian Model of Trade," NBER Working Papers 15528, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Silvio Contessi & Pierangelo De Pace, 2011. "The (non-)resiliency of foreign direct investment in the United States during the 2007-2009 financial crisis," Working Papers 2011-037, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    12. repec:eee:riibaf:v:43:y:2018:i:c:p:99-112 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Adugna Olani, 2016. "Dynamic Capital inflow transmission of monetary policy to emerging markets," Working Papers 1358, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
    14. Joshua Aizenman & Ilan Noy, 2008. "Links between Trade and Finance: A Disaggregated Analysis," NBER Chapters,in: Financial Markets Volatility and Performance in Emerging Markets, pages 9-28 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. John C Bluedorn & Rupa Duttagupta & Jaime Guajardo & Petia Topalova, 2013. "Capital Flows are Fickle; Anytime, Anywhere," IMF Working Papers 13/183, International Monetary Fund.
    16. Hyun Song Shin & Viral Acharya & Tanju Yorulmazer, 2011. "Fire Sale FDI," Korean Economic Review, Korean Economic Association, vol. 27, pages 163-202.
    17. Nan Li, 2011. "Cyclical Wage Movements in Emerging Markets Compared to Developed Economies: the Role of Interest Rates," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 14(4), pages 686-704, October.
    18. Contessi, Silvio & De Pace, Pierangelo, 2009. "Do European capital flows comove?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 145-161, August.
    19. Contessi, Silvio & De Pace, Pierangelo & Francis, Johanna L., 2013. "The cyclical properties of disaggregated capital flows," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 528-555.
    20. repec:spr:portec:v:16:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s10258-016-0126-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. Cavoli, Tony, 2014. "Substitutes or complements? The interactions between components of capital inflows for Asia," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31, pages 32-41.
    22. Nan Li, 2007. "Cyclical Wage Movements in Emerging Markets Compared to Developed Economies: A Contractual Approach," Discussion Papers 06-026, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.

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