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Implementation of energy efficiency standards of household refrigerator/freezer in China: Potential environmental and economic impacts

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  • Tao, Jing
  • Yu, Suiran

Abstract

Due to the rapid economic development, living standards in China are improving fast. Chinese families are having more household electrical appliances, among which refrigerators are indispensable. Energy consumption of refrigerators is huge in China and causes environmental concerns. China has issued the national energy efficiency standards of household refrigerators, GB12021.2-2003 and GB12021.2-2008 to promote high-efficiency refrigerator production and use. This study evaluated the impacts of the standards on the environment, manufacturers and consumers over a long-term period of 2003-2023. It first evaluated the potential electricity conservation and GHG emission reduction resulting from energy efficiency improvements driven by the standards. Next, manufacturers' technological and economic concerns about complying with the standards were discussed. Some efficiency improving design options were considered and the resulting increases in manufacturing cost and retail price were estimated. The return of consumers from invest in efficiency was analyzed based on lifecycle cost saving of the improved models. The economical viability of the standards was then evaluated by national consumer costs and benefits. Results showed that the considered efficiency standards will potentially save a cumulative total of 588-1180Â TWh electricity, and reduce emission of 629-1260Â million tons of CO2, 4.00-8.04Â million tons of SOx and 2.37-4.76Â million tons of NOx by 2023, depending on sale share of models by efficiency. In a more environmentally optimal case (75% sale share of high-efficiency models), the national consumer benefits are 121Â billion RMB (discounted), with the benefit/cost ratio of consumer's expenditure being 1.45:1. However, the preference to high-efficiency models is substantial influenced by consumer's expectation on return from the additional cost on efficiency.

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  • Tao, Jing & Yu, Suiran, 2011. "Implementation of energy efficiency standards of household refrigerator/freezer in China: Potential environmental and economic impacts," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(5), pages 1890-1905, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:88:y:2011:i:5:p:1890-1905
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    10. Azmi, W.H. & Sharif, M.Z. & Yusof, T.M. & Mamat, Rizalman & Redhwan, A.A.M., 2017. "Potential of nanorefrigerant and nanolubricant on energy saving in refrigeration system – A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 415-428.
    11. Ruble, Isabella & Karaki, Sami, 2013. "Introducing mandatory standards for select household appliances in Lebanon: A cost-benefit analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 608-617.
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    15. Baldini, Mattia & Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik, 2016. "Optimal trade-offs between energy efficiency improvements and additional renewable energy supply: A review of international experiences," MPRA Paper 102031, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Gómez, Antonio & Dopazo, César & Fueyo, Norberto, 2015. "The future of energy in Uzbekistan," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 329-338.
    17. Jain, Manisha & Rao, Anand B. & Patwardhan, Anand, 2018. "Appliance labeling and consumer heterogeneity: A discrete choice experiment in India," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 226(C), pages 213-224.
    18. Tsvetan Tsvetanov & Kathleen Segerson, 2014. "The Welfare Effects of Energy Efficiency Standards When Choice Sets Matter," Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, University of Chicago Press, vol. 1(1), pages 233-271.

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