Impacts of US federal energy efficiency standards for residential appliances
This study estimated energy, environmental, and consumer impacts of US federal residential energy efficiency standards taking effect in the 1988–2007 period. These standards have been the subject of in-depth analyses conducted as part of the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) standards rulemaking process. This study drew on those analyses, but updated key data and developed a common framework and assumptions for all of the products. We estimate that the considered standards will reduce residential primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 8–9% in 2020 compared to the levels expected without any standards. The standards will save a cumulative total of 26–32 EJ (25–30 quads) by the year 2015, and 63 EJ (60 quads) by 2030. The estimated cumulative net present value of consumer benefit amounts to nearly US$80 billion by 2015, and grows to US$130 billion by 2030. The overall benefit/cost ratio of cumulative consumer impacts in the 1987–2050 period is 2.75:1. The cumulative cost of the DOE’s program to establish and implement the standards is in the range of US$200–US$250 million.
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- Greening, Lorna A & Sanstad, Alan H & McMahon, James E, 1997. "Effects of Appliance Standards on Product Price and Attributes: An Hedonic Pricing Model," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 11(2), pages 181-194, March.