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Residential emissions reductions through variable timing of electricity consumption


  • Harris, A.R.
  • Rogers, Michelle Marinich
  • Miller, Carol J.
  • McElmurry, Shawn P.
  • Wang, Caisheng


A real-time electricity emissions estimating tool, the Locational Marginal Price Emissions Estimation Method (LEEM), is assessed for its ability to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), global warming potential measured as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) on a residential scale. Through LEEM, residential electricity use can be shifted to low emissions times of day. In the study area of Michigan, USA emissions from five types of appliances (hot water heater, refrigerator defrost, dishwasher, clothes washer, and clothes dryer) were calculated to be theoretically reduced by 21–35% annually through a “best-case” application of LEEM. Annual emissions of the five pollutants, SO2, NOx, CO2e, Hg, and Pb, can be reduced across the state by 429,000, 110,000, 87,240,000, 2.21, and 4.53 pounds, respectively – all without a reduction in the electricity used in the period of study. Despite different fuel mixes, similar emissions reductions were calculated for other regions of the country, as well.

Suggested Citation

  • Harris, A.R. & Rogers, Michelle Marinich & Miller, Carol J. & McElmurry, Shawn P. & Wang, Caisheng, 2015. "Residential emissions reductions through variable timing of electricity consumption," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 158(C), pages 484-489.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:158:y:2015:i:c:p:484-489
    DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.08.042

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Lara J. Treemore-Spears & J. Morgan Grove & Craig K. Harris & Lawrence D. Lemke & Carol J. Miller & Kami Pothukuchi & Yifan Zhang & Yongli L. Zhang, 2016. "A workshop on transitioning cities at the food-energy-water nexus," Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, Springer;Association of Environmental Studies and Sciences, vol. 6(1), pages 90-103, March.
    2. Fan, Jing-Li & Hou, Yun-Bing & Wang, Qian & Wang, Ce & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2016. "Exploring the characteristics of production-based and consumption-based carbon emissions of major economies: A multiple-dimension comparison," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 790-799.
    3. Qadrdan, Meysam & Cheng, Meng & Wu, Jianzhong & Jenkins, Nick, 2017. "Benefits of demand-side response in combined gas and electricity networks," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 192(C), pages 360-369.


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