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Covid-19 vaccines, rules, deaths, and tourism recovery


  • Okafor, Luke
  • Yan, Eric


This study explores whether vaccination coverage, social distancing rules, and COVID-19 death rate affect tourism recovery using data from 249 countries/territories. We used panel data regression techniques—namely Fixed-effects, Hausman-Taylor, and Instrumental Variables regressions for the empirical analysis. Results show that a higher vaccination coverage is not necessarily accompanied by a higher tourism recovery. Similarly, a higher level of stringency restriction hinders tourism recovery. Results also indicate that a lower death rate helps to promote tourism recovery in developed economies. These results suggest that vaccination coverage alone is not the magic bullet for restarting the tourism industry. Policymakers should consider a mix of effective vaccination administration accompanied by the use of therapeutics to lower the COVID-19 death rate.

Suggested Citation

  • Okafor, Luke & Yan, Eric, 2022. "Covid-19 vaccines, rules, deaths, and tourism recovery," Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier, vol. 95(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:anture:v:95:y:2022:i:c:s0160738322000755
    DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2022.103424

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Marcus Roller, 2022. "Pre-Crisis Determinants of Tourism Resilience," Diskussionsschriften credresearchpaper39, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft - CRED.

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