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Energy and carbon inventory of Iowa swine production facilities


  • Lammers, P.J.
  • Honeyman, M.S.
  • Harmon, J.D.
  • Helmers, M.J.


This study evaluates energy and carbon use by two types of facilities--conventional confinement and hoop barn-based--within farrow-to-finish pig production systems scaled to produce 5200 and 15,600 market pigs annually in Iowa. The United States is the world's second largest producer of pork with pig production centered in the state of Iowa. Conventional confinement facilities are typical of pork industry practice in the United States and are characterized by individual gestation stalls and 1200 head grow-finish buildings with slatted concrete floors and liquid manure systems. The hoop barn-based alternative uses group pens in bedded hoop barns for gestation and finishing. Both systems use climate controlled farrowing facilities with individual farrowing crates as well as climate controlled nursery facilities. Feed is the single largest operating resource in pig production systems and feed fed to grow-finish pigs accounts for 63-65% of total energy use in raising pigs. The other stages of production are more reliant on non-renewable fuels and ignoring these stages of production misses 54-80% of the non-renewable fuel use associated with pig production. Taking into account demonstrated performance differences, hoop barn-based pig production requires 2.4% more feed and similar total energy as conventional pig production. Hoop barn-based pig production requires 63-64% less non-renewable fuel and results in 35% less emissions. There is little (

Suggested Citation

  • Lammers, P.J. & Honeyman, M.S. & Harmon, J.D. & Helmers, M.J., 2010. "Energy and carbon inventory of Iowa swine production facilities," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 103(8), pages 551-561, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:agisys:v:103:y:2010:i:8:p:551-561

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Delgado, Christopher L. & Rosegrant, Mark W. & Steinfeld, Henning & Ehui, Simeon K. & Courbois, Claude, 1999. "Livestock to 2020: the next food revolution," 2020 vision briefs 61, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    2. Lammers, P.J. & Kenealy, J.B. & Kliebenstein, James & Harmon, Jay D. & Helmers, Matthew J. & Honeyman, Mark, 2010. "Nonsolar Energy Use and One-Hundred-Year Global Warming Potential of Iowa Swine Feedstuffs and Feeding Strategies," Staff General Research Papers Archive 31866, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    3. Uhlin, Hans-Erik, 1998. "Why energy productivity is increasing: An I-O analysis of Swedish agriculture," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 56(4), pages 443-465, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Stone, James J. & Dollarhide, Christopher R. & Benning, Jennifer L. & Gregg Carlson, C. & Clay, David E., 2012. "The life cycle impacts of feed for modern grow-finish Northern Great Plains US swine production," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 106(1), pages 1-10.
    2. Pelletier, N. & Lammers, P. & Stender, D. & Pirog, R., 2010. "Life cycle assessment of high- and low-profitability commodity and deep-bedded niche swine production systems in the Upper Midwestern United States," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 103(9), pages 599-608, November.


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