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Los retos del desarrollo latinoamericano a la luz de la historia

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  • José Antonio Ocampo

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Abstract

Este ensayo analiza los retos del desarrollo latinoamericano a la luz de la historia y de los fuertes cambios recientes en el contexto económico mundial. Muestra el mediocre desempeño económico de la región a partir de las reformas en comparación con el periodo de industrialización dirigida por el Estado que lo precedió, aunque con resultados positivos durante la última década en materia social. A la luz de estos resultados y de las incertidumbres que rodean la economía mundial, plantea tres retos principales: adoptar políticas macroeconómicas anticíclicas más consistentes, estrategias activas de desarrollo productivo y continuar en la tarea de reducir los altos niveles históricos de desigualdad. ***** This paper discusses the challenges of Latin American development in the light of history and of the strong recent changes in the world economic context. This text highlights the mediocre economic performance of the region after the reforms compared to the period of state-led industrialization that preceded it, even though there were positive results in social matters during the last decade. In light of these results and the uncertainties surrounding the global economy, three main challenges arise: to adopt more consistent countercyclical macroeconomic policies, active productive development strategies, and to continue the task of reducing historically high levels of inequality.

Suggested Citation

  • José Antonio Ocampo, 2015. "Los retos del desarrollo latinoamericano a la luz de la historia," Revista Cuadernos de Economía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia -FCE - CID, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000093:012978
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    File URL: http://www.fce.unal.edu.co/media/files/documentos/Cuadernos/66/finales/v34nspe66a02.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. repec:idb:brikps:34178 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Pablo Astorga & Ame R. Berges & Valpy Fitzgerald, 2005. "The standard of living in Latin America during the twentieth century -super-1," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 58(4), pages 765-796, November.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    América Latina; políticas anticíclicas; industrialización; productos básicos; desigualdad.;

    JEL classification:

    • E61 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination
    • N16 - Economic History - - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations - - - Latin America; Caribbean
    • N66 - Economic History - - Manufacturing and Construction - - - Latin America; Caribbean
    • O54 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Latin America; Caribbean

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