Top-down, middle-out, and bottom-up processes: A cognitive perspective of teaching and learning economics
The pedagogical value of graphical representations and analyses (GR and GA) in economics education is examined in a framework of top-down and bottom-up processes of thinking. We argue, with the support of two illustrative examples, that they are useful to the extent that they provide bridges between economic theories and facts. We also note that over-reliance on GR and GA may lead to misconceptions on the students' part. Hence, the challenge for educators and students of economics is to connect GR and GA upwardly with theories and downwardly with the empirical world.
Volume (Year): 5 (2006)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
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NBER Working Papers
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