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EU Policies on Bioenergy and their Potential Clash with the WTO


  • Alan Swinbank


The paper outlines EU policy on bioenergy, including biofuels, in the context of its policy initiatives to promote renewable energy to combat greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. The EU's Member States are responsible for implementing EU policy: thus, the UK's Renewables Obligation on electricity suppliers and its Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation and road-fuel tax rebates are examined. It is unlikely that EU policy is in conflict with the WTO Agreement on Agriculture or that on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, but its provisions on environmental sustainability criteria could be problematic. Copyright (c) 2009 The Author. Journal compilation (c) 2009 The Agricultural Economics Society.

Suggested Citation

  • Alan Swinbank, 2009. "EU Policies on Bioenergy and their Potential Clash with the WTO," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(3), pages 485-503.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jageco:v:60:y:2009:i:3:p:485-503

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Mitchell, Catherine & Connor, Peter, 2004. "Renewable energy policy in the UK 1990-2003," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(17), pages 1935-1947, November.
    2. Mitchell, C. & Bauknecht, D. & Connor, P.M., 2006. "Effectiveness through risk reduction: a comparison of the renewable obligation in England and Wales and the feed-in system in Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 297-305, February.
    3. Josling, Tim & Swinbank, Alan, 2008. "European Union: Shadow WTO agricultural domestic support notifications," IFPRI discussion papers 809, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    4. Daugbjerg, Carsten & Swinbank, Alan, 2009. "Ideas, Institutions, and Trade: The WTO and the Curious Role of EU Farm Policy in Trade Liberalization," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199557752, June.
    5. Bomb, Christian & McCormick, Kes & Deurwaarder, Ewout & Kaberger, Tomas, 2007. "Biofuels for transport in Europe: Lessons from Germany and the UK," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 2256-2267, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Sivek, Martin & Kavina, Pavel & Jirásek, Jakub, 2011. "European Union and the formation of its initiative in energy minerals," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 5535-5540, September.
    2. Swinbank, Alan & Tranter, Richard & Jones, Philip, 2011. "Mandates, buyouts and fuel-tax rebates: Some economic aspects of biofuel policies using the UK as an example," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1249-1253, March.
    3. Tranter, R.B. & Swinbank, A. & Jones, P.J. & Banks, C.J. & Salter, A.M., 2011. "Assessing the potential for the uptake of on-farm anaerobic digestion for energy production in England," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2424-2430, May.
    4. Jones, Philip & Salter, Andrew, 2013. "Modelling the economics of farm-based anaerobic digestion in a UK whole-farm context," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 215-225.
    5. Robert Ackrill & Adrian Kay, 2010. "WTO Regulations and Bioenergy Sustainability Certification – Synergies and Possible Conflicts," Working Papers 2010/9, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham Business School, Economics Division.
    6. Bartolini, Fabio & Viaggi, Davide, 2012. "An analysis of policy scenario effects on the adoption of energy production on the farm: A case study in Emilia–Romagna (Italy)," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 454-464.
    7. Bentsen, Niclas Scott & Jack, Michael W. & Felby, Claus & Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark, 2014. "Allocation of biomass resources for minimising energy system greenhouse gas emissions," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 506-515.
    8. Gamborg, Christian & Anker, Helle Tegner & Sandøe, Peter, 2014. "Ethical and legal challenges in bioenergy governance: Coping with value disagreement and regulatory complexity," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 326-333.

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