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Rural-to-Urban Commuting: Three Degrees of Integration

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  • MARK D. PARTRIDGE
  • KAMAR ALI
  • M. ROSE OLFERT

Abstract

Commuting ties between rural places of residence and urban places of employment are among the most visible forms of rural-urban integration. For some rural areas, access to urban employment is a key source of population retention and growth. However, this access varies considerably across rural areas, with distance representing a primary deterrent. In addition to distance, the size of the urban community will also influence rural-to-urban commuting opportunities. In this paper, using Canadian data, we empirically estimated the influence of local rural population and job growth on rural out-commuting within the urban hierarchy. We find consistent support for the deconcentration hypothesis where population moves to rural areas for lifestyle and quality of life reasons, while retaining urban employment. Further, we find some evidence that in addition to distance from the nearest urban center being a deterrent, increased remoteness from the top of the urban hierarchy exerts a "positive" influence on out-commuting. Recognition of these types of rural-urban linkages through commuting is essential in designing Canadian rural policy and targeted programs that may effectively support local rural populations. In particular, they point to the need to have reasonable transportation infrastructure for urban accessibility, which should be complemented by other "built" infrastructure to improve the livability of rural communities. Copyright (c) 2010 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..

Suggested Citation

  • Mark D. Partridge & Kamar Ali & M. Rose Olfert, 2010. "Rural-to-Urban Commuting: Three Degrees of Integration," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(2), pages 303-335.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:growch:v:41:y:2010:i:2:p:303-335
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Paolo Veneri & Vicente Ruiz, 2016. "Urban-To-Rural Population Growth Linkages: Evidence From Oecd Tl3 Regions," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(1), pages 3-24, January.
    2. repec:eee:resene:v:50:y:2017:i:c:p:74-90 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Ivan T. Kandilov & Mitch Renkow, 2010. "Infrastructure Investment and Rural Economic Development: An Evaluation of USDA's Broadband Loan Program," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(2), pages 165-191.
    4. Olfert, R. & Berdegué, J. & Escobal, J. & Jara, B. & Modrego, F., 2011. "Places for Place-Based Policies," Working papers 079, Rimisp Latin American Center for Rural Development.
    5. Jonathan Corcoran & Alessandra Faggian & Philip Mccann, 2010. "Human Capital in Remote and Rural Australia: The Role of Graduate Migration," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(2), pages 192-220.
    6. Spiller, Elisheba & Stephens, Heather M., 2012. "The Heterogeneous Effects of Gasoline Taxes: Why Where We Live Matters," Discussion Papers dp-12-30, Resources For the Future.
    7. Georgeanne M. Artz & Younjun Kim & Peter F. Orazem, 2016. "Does Agglomeration Matter Everywhere?: New Firm Location Decisions In Rural And Urban Markets," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(1), pages 72-95, January.
    8. Deng Chen & Yanxia Wang & Fu Ren & Qingyun Du, 2016. "Spatio-Temporal Differentiation of Urban-Rural Equalized Development at the County Level in Chengdu," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(5), pages 1-17, April.
    9. M. Rose Olfert & Mark D. Partridge, 2010. "Best Practices in Twenty-First-Century Rural Development and Policy," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(2), pages 147-164.
    10. Winters, John V, 2010. "Human Capital and Population Growth in Non-Metropolitan U.S. Counties: The Importance of College Student Migration," MPRA Paper 25592, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. John V. Winters, 2011. "Human Capital and Population Growth in Nonmetropolitan U.S. Counties," Economic Development Quarterly, , vol. 25(4), pages 353-365, November.
    12. Jan Ubøe & Inge Thorsen & David McArthur, 2011. "Modelling intra-regional geographic mobility in a rural setting," ERSA conference papers ersa11p1243, European Regional Science Association.
    13. Paul Lewin & Bruce Weber & David Holland, 2013. "Core–periphery dynamics in the Portland, Oregon, region: 1982–2006," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 51(2), pages 411-433, October.
    14. Joanna P. Ganning & Kathy Baylis & Bumsoo Lee, 2013. "Spread And Backwash Effects For Nonmetropolitan Communities In The U.S," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(3), pages 464-480, August.
    15. David Philip McArthur & Inge Thorsen & Jan Ubøe, 2014. "Employment, transport infrastructure, and rural depopulation: a new spatial equilibrium model," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 46(7), pages 1652-1665, July.
    16. repec:gam:jsusta:v:8:y:2016:i:5:p:422:d:69184 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Anil Rupasingha & Yongzheng Liu & Mark Partridge, 2015. "Rural Bound: Determinants of Metro to Non-Metro Migration in the United States," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 97(3), pages 680-700.
    18. Sharma, Ajay & Chandrasekhar, S., 2016. "Impact of commuting by workers on household dietary diversity in rural India," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 34-43.
    19. Benedek, József & Hărănguș, Iulia & Man, Titus, 2017. "Commuting patterns in Romania: Case study on Cluj County," MPRA Paper 76807, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Mark D. Partridge & Dan S. Rickman, 2012. "Integrating Regional Economic Development Analysis and Land Use Economics," Economics Working Paper Series 1203, Oklahoma State University, Department of Economics and Legal Studies in Business.
    21. Stephan J. Goetz & Yicheol Han & Jill L. Findeis & Kathryn J. Brasier, 2010. "U.S. Commuting Networks and Economic Growth: Measurement and Implications for Spatial Policy," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(2), pages 276-302.

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