IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/devpol/v36y2018is1po201-o219.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Why do financial inclusion policies fail in mobilizing savings from the poor? Lessons from rural south India

Author

Listed:
  • Jann Goedecke
  • Isabelle Guérin
  • Bert D'Espallier
  • Govindan Venkatasubramanian

Abstract

Combining multivariate and qualitative analyses, this micro†level study suggests an explanation for the persistence of informal savings in rural south India despite publicly run large†scale programmes to promote bank savings. Gold, in particular, but also Rotating Saving and Credit Associations (ROSCAs) and private lending, remain the dominant forms of savings. We argue that cultural norms and social institutions, such as social class and caste, shape the nature of savings, and also the propensity and opportunities to save. Gold serves multiple purposes, financial, economic, socio†cultural and political. Furthermore, we find that the preference of Dalits (the lowest caste) for gold illustrates a relative emancipation, which contrasts with the persistence of caste†related prohibitions preventing them investing in other assets, such as land.

Suggested Citation

  • Jann Goedecke & Isabelle Guérin & Bert D'Espallier & Govindan Venkatasubramanian, 2018. "Why do financial inclusion policies fail in mobilizing savings from the poor? Lessons from rural south India," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 36(S1), pages 201-219, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:devpol:v:36:y:2018:i:s1:p:o201-o219
    DOI: 10.1111/dpr.12272
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/dpr.12272
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1111/dpr.12272?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Marc Labie & Carolina Laureti & Ariane Szafarz, 2017. "Discipline and flexibility: a behavioural perspective on microfinance product design," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(3), pages 321-337, July.
    2. Vegard Iversen & Adriaan Kalwij & Arjan Verschoor & Amaresh Dubey, 2014. "Caste Dominance and Economic Performance in Rural India," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 62(3), pages 423-457.
    3. Dean Karlan & Aishwarya Lakshmi Ratan & Jonathan Zinman, 2014. "Savings by and for the Poor: A Research Review and Agenda," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 60(1), pages 36-78, March.
    4. Pascaline Dupas & Jonathan Robinson, 2013. "Savings Constraints and Microenterprise Development: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kenya," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 163-192, January.
    5. Morvant-Roux, Solène & Guérin, Isabelle & Roesch, Marc & Moisseron, Jean-Yves, 2014. "Adding Value to Randomization with Qualitative Analysis: The Case of Microcredit in Rural Morocco," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 302-312.
    6. Pascaline Dupas & Sarah Green & Anthony Keats & Jonathan Robinson, 2014. "Challenges in Banking the Rural Poor: Evidence from Kenya's Western Province," NBER Chapters, in: African Successes, Volume III: Modernization and Development, pages 63-101, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Ashraf, Nava & Karlan, Dean & Yin, Wesley, 2010. "Female Empowerment: Impact of a Commitment Savings Product in the Philippines," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 333-344, March.
    8. MR Rosenzweig, 2001. "Savings behaviour in low-income countries," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(1), pages 40-54, Spring.
    9. Demirguc-Kunt,Asli & Klapper,Leora & Singer,Dorothe & Van Oudheusden,Peter, 2015. "The Global Findex Database 2014 : measuring financial inclusion around the world," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7255, The World Bank.
    10. Jonathan Morduch & Manohar Sharma, 2002. "Strengthening Public Safety Nets from the Bottom Up," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 20(5), pages 569-588, November.
    11. Marc Labie & Carolina Laureti & Ariane Szafarz, 2016. "Discipline and Flexibility: A Behavioral Perspective on Product Design in Microfinance," Working Papers CEB 15-020, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    12. Dean Karlan & Aishwarya Lakshmi Ratan & Jonathan Zinman, 2014. "Savings by and for the Poor: A Research Review and Agenda," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 60(1), pages 36-78, March.
    13. Levien, Michael, 2015. "Social Capital as Obstacle to Development: Brokering Land, Norms, and Trust in Rural India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 77-92.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Isabelle Guérin & Sébastien Michiels & Arnaud Natal & Christophe Jalil Nordman & Govindan Venkatasubramanian, 2020. "Surviving debt, survival debt in times of lockdown," Working Papers hal-02904484, HAL.
    2. P.V. Viswanath, 2021. "Connectivity and Savings Propensity among Odisha Tribals," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(2), pages 1-15, January.
    3. Tanmoyee Banerjee-Chatterjee & Malabika Roy & Ajitava Raychaudhuri, 2021. "Financial Inclusiveness and Mobilization of Household Savings in Rural Area: Are They Related?," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 19(2), pages 223-249, June.
    4. Isabelle Guérin & Youna Lanos & Sébastien Michiels & Christophe Jalil Nordman & Govindan Venkatasubramanian, 2017. "Demonetisation, Social Networks and Social Protection: Insights from Rural Tamil Nadu," Working Papers DT/2017/10, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    5. Raghbendra Jha & Woojin Kang & Hari K. Nagarajan & Anirudh Taga, 2019. "Workfare and Vulnerability in Rural India," ASARC Working Papers 2019-01, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
    6. Yugank Goyal & Klaus Heine, 2021. "Why do informal markets remain informal: the role of tacit knowledge in an Indian footwear cluster," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 639-659, April.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Grohmann, Antonia & Klühs, Theres & Menkhoff, Lukas, 2018. "Does financial literacy improve financial inclusion? Cross country evidence," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 84-96.
    2. Vincent Somville & Lore Vandewalle, 2018. "Saving by Default: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Rural India," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 10(3), pages 39-66, July.
    3. Flory, Jeffrey A., 2018. "Formal finance and informal safety nets of the poor: Evidence from a savings field experiment," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 135(C), pages 517-533.
    4. Pascaline Dupas & Dean Karlan & Jonathan Robinson & Diego Ubfal, 2018. "Banking the Unbanked? Evidence from Three Countries," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 10(2), pages 257-297, April.
    5. Steinert, Janina I. & Zenker, Juliane & Filipiak, Ute & Movsisyan, Ani & Cluver, Lucie D. & Shenderovich, Yulia, 2018. "Do saving promotion interventions increase household savings, consumption, and investments in Sub-Saharan Africa? A systematic review and meta-analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 238-256.
    6. Abidin Alhassan & Leon Li & Krishna Reddy & Geeta Duppati, 2021. "The relationship between political instability and financial inclusion: Evidence from Middle East and North Africa," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(1), pages 353-374, January.
    7. Cozarenco, Anastasia & Hudon, Marek & Szafarz, Ariane, 2016. "What type of microfinance institutions supply savings products?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 140(C), pages 57-59.
    8. Girum Abebe & Biruk Tekle & Yukichi Mano, 2018. "Changing Saving and Investment Behaviour: The Impact of Financial Literacy Training and Reminders on Micro-businesses," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 27(5), pages 587-611.
    9. Janina Isabel Steinert & Rucha Vasumati Satish & Felix Stips & Sebastian Vollmer, 2020. "Commitment or Concealment? Impacts and Use of a Portable Saving Device: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Urban India," Munich Papers in Political Economy 04, TUM School of Governance at the Technical University of Munich.
    10. Bruno, Olivier & Khachatryan, Knar, 2020. "Compulsory versus voluntary savings as an incentive mechanism in microfinance programs," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(C).
    11. Serge Ky & Clovis Rugemintwari & Alain Sauviat, 2018. "Does Mobile Money Affect Saving Behaviour? Evidence from a Developing Country," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 27(3), pages 285-320.
    12. Geng, Xin & Janssens, Wendy & Kramer, Berber, 2018. "Liquid milk: Cash Constraints and Recurring Savings among Dairy Farmers in Kenya," 2018 Annual Meeting, August 5-7, Washington, D.C. 273823, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    13. Prina, Silvia, 2015. "Banking the poor via savings accounts: Evidence from a field experiment," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 16-31.
    14. Baborska, Renata & Hernandez-Hernandez, Emilio & Magrini, Emiliano & Morales-Opazo, Cristian, 2018. "The impact of financial inclusion on rural food security experience: a perspective from low-and middle-income countries," MPRA Paper 89249, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Dean Karlan & Margaret McConnell & Sendhil Mullainathan & Jonathan Zinman, 2016. "Getting to the Top of Mind: How Reminders Increase Saving," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 62(12), pages 3393-3411, December.
    16. Di Giannatale, Sonia & Roa, María José, 2017. "Formal Saving in Developing Economies: Barriers, Interventions, and Effects," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 8107, Inter-American Development Bank.
    17. Leandro De Magalhães & Dongya Koh & Raül Santaeulàlia-Llopis, 2016. "Consumption and Expenditure in Sub-Saharan Africa," Bristol Economics Discussion Papers 16/677, School of Economics, University of Bristol, UK, revised 07 Oct 2016.
    18. Leandro De Magalhães & Raül Santaeulàlia-Llopis, 2015. "The Consumption, Income, and Wealth of the Poorest: Cross-Sectional Facts of Rural and Urban Sub-Saharan Africa for Macroeconomists," Bristol Economics Discussion Papers 15/655, School of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
    19. Leora Klapper & Dorothe Singer, 2018. "The role of demand-side data - measuring financial inclusion from the perspective of users of financial services," IFC Bulletins chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), The role of data in supporting financial inclusion policy, volume 47, Bank for International Settlements.
    20. Joshua Blumenstock & Michael Callen & Tarek Ghani, 2018. "Why Do Defaults Affect Behavior? Experimental Evidence from Afghanistan," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 108(10), pages 2868-2901, October.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:devpol:v:36:y:2018:i:s1:p:o201-o219. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/odioruk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Wiley Content Delivery (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/odioruk.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.