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Oil Prices, Terms of Trade Shocks, and Macroeconomic Fluctuations in Saudi Arabia


  • Sel Dibooğlu
  • Eisa Aleisa


The article investigates the sources of macroeconomic fluctuations in Saudi Arabia using structural vector autoregression methods and pays particular attention to oil prices and changes in terms of trade. Using a macroeconomic model tailored to the Saudi Arabian economy, the authors identify terms of trade, supply, balance of payments, aggregate demand, and monetary shocks. The results show that the Saudi Arabian price level, real exchange rate, and to a lesser extent output is vulnerable to terms of trade shocks. Moreover, Saudi Arabian terms of trade are driven by output, trade balance, and aggregate demand shocks. To stabilize output and the real exchange rate, Saudi Arabia ought to continue diversifying its production base and aim for a stable nominal oil price. (JEL "E32", "Q43", "C22") Copyright 2004 Western Economic Association International.

Suggested Citation

  • Sel Dibooğlu & Eisa Aleisa, 2004. "Oil Prices, Terms of Trade Shocks, and Macroeconomic Fluctuations in Saudi Arabia," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 22(1), pages 50-62, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:coecpo:v:22:y:2004:i:1:p:50-62

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kenneth Bercuson, 1995. "Singapore; A Case Study in Rapid Development," IMF Occasional Papers 119, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Chang-Tai Hsieh, 2002. "What Explains the Industrial Revolution in East Asia? Evidence From the Factor Markets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(3), pages 502-526, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Delavari, Majid & Gandali Alikhani, Nadiya, 2013. "The Dynamic Effects of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices on Iran's Methanol," MPRA Paper 49733, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Habib, Maurizio Michael & Kalamova, Margarita Manolova, 2007. "Are there oil currencies? The real exchange rate of oil exporting countries," Working Paper Series 839, European Central Bank.
    3. Mehrara, Mohsen & Oskoui, Kamran Niki, 2007. "The sources of macroeconomic fluctuations in oil exporting countries: A comparative study," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 365-379, May.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes


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