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What Kind of Voice Do Loyal Employees Use?


  • Andrew A. Luchak


This study helps clarify mixed support for Hirschman's exit-voice-loyalty framework by arguing that loyalty, or feelings of attachment to the organization, and voice are not one-dimensional constructs. Based on data gathered from a survey of employees working with a large Canadian utility organization, employees feeling attached through an affective, emotional bond are found less likely to use representative voice but more likely to use direct voice, while those attached for rational, calculated reasons are more likely to use representative voice. Employees feeling attached for either reason are found less likely to exit. Implications for theory, research, and policy are discussed. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Ltd/London School of Economics 2003.

Suggested Citation

  • Andrew A. Luchak, 2003. "What Kind of Voice Do Loyal Employees Use?," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 41(1), pages 115-134, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:brjirl:v:41:y:2003:i:1:p:115-134

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Michels, Robert, 1915. "Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy," History of Economic Thought Books, McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought, number michels1915.
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    Cited by:

    1. García-Serrano, Carlos & Malo, Miguel A., 2009. "The impact of union direct voice on voluntary and involuntary absenteeism," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 372-383, March.
    2. Cam Caldwell & Mayra Canuto-Carranco, 2010. "“Organizational Terrorism” and Moral Choices – Exercising Voice When the Leader is the Problem," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 97(1), pages 159-171, November.
    3. Ramon Bastida Vialcanet & Frederic Marimon & Lluís Carreras, 2015. "An empirical analysis of the effects of human resource management practices on job satisfaction in non-profit," Proceedings of Business and Management Conferences 3005348, International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences.
    4. Szabó, Zsolt, 2012. "A kivonulás-tiltakozás-hűség fogalomhármas közgazdaságtani relevanciája a 21. században
      [The relevance of "exit, voice and loyalty" theory in 21st-century economics]
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(12), pages 1311-1335.
    5. repec:ibf:ijmmre:v:10:y:2017:i:1:p:19-44 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. John T. Addison & Clive R. Belfield, 2004. "Union Voice," Journal of Labor Research, Transaction Publishers, vol. 25(4), pages 563-596, October.
    7. Bruce Kaufman, 2014. "Explaining Breadth and Depth of Employee Voice across Firms: A Voice Factor Demand Model," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 296-319, September.

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