IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Quantifying the impact of phytosanitary standards with specific reference to MRLs on the trade flow of South African avocados to the EU


  • Scheepers, S.
  • Jooste, Andre
  • Alemu, Zerihun Gudeta


In this study a gravity model was used to investigate the impact of country specific MRLs that are more stringent than the MRLs set by CODEX on avocado exports by South Africa to the EU with specific reference to Prochloraz. The results revealed that the more stringent Prochloraz MRLs indeed have an impact on avocado exports to the EU. The simulation results show that the revenue foregone due to the more stringent Prochloraz MRLs is US$15.27 million. In relative terms this is significant, and should the Prochloraz MRLs be relaxed to the CODEX levels the contribution of the avocado industry to the gross domestic value of agricultural products would increase significantly. Furthermore, several studies have revealed the potentially negative impacts of abnormal levels of Prochloraz. The question arises why there are anomalies in the application of Prochloraz MRLs between countries and whether the CODEX MRL already account for these negative impacts. In depth analysis should be done with respect to the anomalies prevailing for Prochloraz MRLs to provide a proper scientific basis for applying them. Other recommendations are that much more attention should be given to the development of the national market for avocados and that other markets than the EU market should be explored for exports.

Suggested Citation

  • Scheepers, S. & Jooste, Andre & Alemu, Zerihun Gudeta, 2007. "Quantifying the impact of phytosanitary standards with specific reference to MRLs on the trade flow of South African avocados to the EU," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 46(2), June.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:agreko:10125

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bergstrand, Jeffrey H, 1985. "The Gravity Equation in International Trade: Some Microeconomic Foundations and Empirical Evidence," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(3), pages 474-481, August.
    2. Otsuki, Tsunehiro & Wilson, John S. & Sewadeh, Mirvat, 2001. "Saving two in a billion: : quantifying the trade effect of European food safety standards on African exports," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 495-514, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. repec:wsi:wschap:9789813144415_0004 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Yuan Li & John C. Beghin, 2017. "A meta-analysis of estimates of the impact of technical barriers to trade," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 4, pages 63-77 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:agreko:10125. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.