Quantifying the impact of phytosanitary standards with specific reference to MRLs on the trade flow of South African avocados to the EU
In this study a gravity model was used to investigate the impact of country specific MRLs that are more stringent than the MRLs set by CODEX on avocado exports by South Africa to the EU with specific reference to Prochloraz. The results revealed that the more stringent Prochloraz MRLs indeed have an impact on avocado exports to the EU. The simulation results show that the revenue foregone due to the more stringent Prochloraz MRLs is US$15.27 million. In relative terms this is significant, and should the Prochloraz MRLs be relaxed to the CODEX levels the contribution of the avocado industry to the gross domestic value of agricultural products would increase significantly. Furthermore, several studies have revealed the potentially negative impacts of abnormal levels of Prochloraz. The question arises why there are anomalies in the application of Prochloraz MRLs between countries and whether the CODEX MRL already account for these negative impacts. In depth analysis should be done with respect to the anomalies prevailing for Prochloraz MRLs to provide a proper scientific basis for applying them. Other recommendations are that much more attention should be given to the development of the national market for avocados and that other markets than the EU market should be explored for exports.
References listed on IDEAS
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- Bergstrand, Jeffrey H, 1985. "The Gravity Equation in International Trade: Some Microeconomic Foundations and Empirical Evidence," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(3), pages 474-481, August.
- Otsuki, Tsunehiro & Wilson, John S. & Sewadeh, Mirvat, 2001. "Saving two in a billion: : quantifying the trade effect of European food safety standards on African exports," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 495-514, October.