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Implications of the US Farm Bill of 2002 for agricultural trade and trade negotiations

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  • Sumner, Daniel A.

Abstract

The US Farm Bill of 2002 is the latest in a 7-decade history of farm subsidy laws that transfer funds to farmers and regulate and subsidize production of selected commodities. Fruit, tree nut, ornamental and vegetable crops, hay and meats remain outside scope of main subsidy programs. The new law continues many innovations of the 1996 Act, such as removal of authority for annual land idling and crop price floors accompanied by government stockholding. Government payments remain the primary focus of commodity programs. The total amount of these payments are likely to remain similar to the amount paid in the period 1999–2001, but with some changes in the form of the programs. For example, allowing owners to update acreage and yield payment bases creates additional incentives for farmers to link current planting decisions to anticipated farm subsidies. Similarly, the new program that ties “counter-cyclical” payments to the price of a specific crop also has production stimulus. A new program, estimated to add about 5–10 per cent to marginal milk revenue for smaller farms, makes ‘deficiency’ payments to dairy farms when milk prices are low. Despite the new programs with added links to stimulating production, new USA programs stimulate production only marginally more than the subsidies of the 1999–2001 period, which were replaced. Furthermore, the USA has flexibility to avoid explicitly violating its WTO commitments. Nonetheless, this US Farm Bill of 2002 has curtailed the previous trends toward lower farm subsidies and smaller production stimuli, and the negative publicity surrounding it has made negotiating reductions of farm trade distortions more difficult.

Suggested Citation

  • Sumner, Daniel A., 2003. "Implications of the US Farm Bill of 2002 for agricultural trade and trade negotiations," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 47(1), pages 1-24.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:aareaj:116176
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. David A. Hennessy, 1998. "The Production Effects of Agricultural Income Support Policies under Uncertainty," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 80(1), pages 46-57.
    2. C. Edwin Young & Paul C. Westcott, 2000. "How Decoupled Is U.S. Agricultural Support for Major Crops?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(3), pages 762-767.
    3. Daniel A. Sumner & Frank H. Buck & Hyunok Lee, 2000. "Assessing the Effects of the WTO Agreement on Rice Markets: What can We Learn from the First Five Years?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(3), pages 709-717.
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    Cited by:

    1. Taheripour, Farzad & Khanna, Madhu & Nelson, Charles, 2005. "Welfare Impacts of Alternative Public Policies for Environmental Protection in Agriculture in an Open Economy: A General Equilibrium Framework," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19317, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    2. Stephen O'Neill & Kevin Hanrahan, 2016. "The capitalization of coupled and decoupled CAP payments into land rental rates," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 47(3), pages 285-294, May.
    3. BOUËT Antoine & BUREAU Jean-Christophe & DECREUX Yvan & JEAN Sébastien, "undated". "Is Northern Agricultural Liberalization Beneficial to Developing Countries?," EcoMod2003 330700021, EcoMod.
    4. Bhaskar, Arathi & Beghin, John C., 2007. "Decoupled Farm Payments and the Role of Base Updating Under Uncertainty," Working Papers 7350, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    5. Alston, Julian M. & Sumner, Daniel A. & Vosti, Stephen A., 2005. "The Effects of Agricultural Research and Farm Subsidy Policies on Human Nutrition and Obesity," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19196, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    6. Bhaskar, Arathi & Beghin, John C., 2007. "How Coupled are Decoupled Farm Payments? A Review of Coupling Mechanisms and the Evidence," Working Papers 7347, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    7. Jean-Pierre Butault & Jean-Christophe Bureau, 2006. "WTO Contstaints and the CAP: Domestic Support in EU 25 Agriculture," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp171, IIIS.
    8. Taheripour, Farzad, 2006. "Economic Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program: A General Equilibrium Framework," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21346, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    9. Bureau, Jean-Christophe & Jean, Sebastien & Matthews, Alan, 2005. "Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Assessing the Consequences for Developing Countries," 2005 International Congress, August 23-27, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark 24628, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    10. Voica, Daniel C., 2014. "Are Subsidies Decoupled from Production in the Presence of Incomplete Financial Markets?," 2014 Annual Meeting, July 27-29, 2014, Minneapolis, Minnesota 169788, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    11. Brink, Lars, 2005. "WTO Constraints on U.S. and EU Domestic Support in Agriculture: Assessing the October 2005 Proposals," Working Papers 14601, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
    12. Brink, Lars, 2006. "WTO Constraints on U.S. and EU Domestic Support in Agriculture: The October 2005 Proposals," Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade, vol. 7(1), pages 1-20.
    13. repec:spr:empeco:v:55:y:2018:i:3:d:10.1007_s00181-017-1316-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Shaik, Saleem & Atwood, Joseph A. & Helmers, Glenn A., 2012. "Did 1933 new deal legislation contribute to farm real estate values: A regional analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 801-816.
    15. Bureau, Jean-Christophe & Jean, Sebastien & Matthews, Alan, 2006. "The Consequences of Agricultural Trade Liberalization for Developing Countries," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25471, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    16. Alston, Julian M. & Sumner, Daniel A. & Balagtas, Joseph Valdes & Brunke, Henrich, 2004. "Economic Implications Of The Australia-U.S. Free Trade Agreement For U.S. Dairy Markets And Domestic Dairy Farm Programs," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20164, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    17. Moon, Wanki, 2012. "Conceptualizing Multifunctional Agriculture from a Global Perspective," 2012 Annual Meeting, February 4-7, 2012, Birmingham, Alabama 119751, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.

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