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Changes in Energy Intensity in Canada

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  • Saeed Moshiri and Nana Duah

Abstract

Canada is one of the top energy users and CO2 emitters among the OECD countries. However, energy intensity has been declining, on average, by about 1.4 percent since 1980. In this paper, we use the Fisher Ideal Index to determine the contribution of changes in the composition of economic activities and efficiency to a decline in energy intensity in Canada at national, provincial, and industry levels. We also apply panel data estimation methods to further investigate the factors driving energy intensity, efficiency and activity indexes for the period 1981-2008. We test for endogeneity as well as cross-section dependency in the provincial data and control for factors such as climate, policy, and energy endowment. The national and provincial decomposition results suggest that most of the reduction in energy intensity has occurred mainly due to improvements in energy efficiency rather than shifts in economic activities. Within the industry, while energy intensity has declined significantly in manufacturing, it has remained stable in transportation, utilities, and construction, and increased significantly in oil extraction and mining industries. The provincial panel regression results indicate that energy intensity is higher in provinces with higher average incomes, faster population growth, colder climate, and a higher capital-labour ratio, and lower in provinces with higher energy prices and higher investment. The industry panel regression results show that investment has contributed to energy efficiency in utilities and mining and to a shift away from energy-intensive activities in manufacturing and transportation industries. Technological advances have been most effective in increasing energy efficiency in construction and utilities and in decreasing energy-intensive activities in manufacturing industries. The results indicate that although efficiency contributes to a reduction in energy intensity in Canada, increasing activity in energy-intensive industries, such as oil and mining, partially offsets the efficiency gains in other industries.

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  • Saeed Moshiri and Nana Duah, 2016. "Changes in Energy Intensity in Canada," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4).
  • Handle: RePEc:aen:journl:ej37-4-moshiri
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    Cited by:

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    3. Saunders, Harry D. & Roy, Joyashree & Azevedo, Inês M.L. & Chakravarty, Debalina & Dasgupta, Shyamasree & De La Rue Du Can, Stephane & Druckman, Angela & Fouquet, Roger & Grubb, Michael & Lin, Boqiang, 2021. "Energy efficiency: what has research delivered in the last 40 years?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 114344, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    4. Yang, Zhenbing & Shi, Qingquan & Lv, Xiangqiu & Shi, Qi, 2022. "Heterogeneous low-carbon targets and energy structure optimization: Does stricter carbon regulation really matter?," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 329-343.
    5. Mirza, Faisal Mehmood & Sinha, Avik & Khan, Javeria Rehman & Kalugina, Olga A. & Zafar, Muhammad Wasif, 2022. "Impact of Energy Efficiency on CO2 Emissions: Empirical Evidence from Developing Countries," MPRA Paper 111923, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2022.
    6. Liu, Fengqin & Sim, Jae-yeon & Sun, Huaping & Edziah, Bless Kofi & Adom, Philip Kofi & Song, Shunfeng, 2023. "Assessing the role of economic globalization on energy efficiency: Evidence from a global perspective," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 77(C).
    7. Tajudeen, Ibrahim A., 2021. "The underlying drivers of economy-wide energy efficiency and asymmetric energy price responses," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(C).

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