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Ensuring Sales: A Theory of Inter-firm Credit

Author

Listed:
  • Arup Daripa
  • Jeffrey Nilsen

Abstract

We propose a simple theory to account for the prevalence of interfirm credit at an interest rate of zero. A downstream firm trades off inventory holding costs against lost sales. Lost final sales impose a negative externality on the upstream firm. The solution requires a subsidy limited by the value of inputs. Allowing the downstream firm to pay with a delay is precisely such a solution. A reverse externality accounts for the use of prepayment. We clarify how input prices vary with such policies, and when trade credit/prepayment is more efficient than pure input price adjustments. (JEL D21, D62, D92, G31, L25)

Suggested Citation

  • Arup Daripa & Jeffrey Nilsen, 2011. "Ensuring Sales: A Theory of Inter-firm Credit," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(1), pages 245-279, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:aejmic:v:3:y:2011:i:1:p:245-79
    Note: DOI: 10.1257/mic.3.1.245
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Mike Burkart & Tore Ellingsen, 2004. "In-Kind Finance: A Theory of Trade Credit," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 569-590, June.
    2. Nilsen, Jeffrey H, 2002. "Trade Credit and the Bank Lending Channel," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(1), pages 226-253, February.
    3. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1997. "Trade Credit: Theories and Evidence," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(3), pages 661-691.
    4. Bougheas, Spiros & Mateut, Simona & Mizen, Paul, 2009. "Corporate trade credit and inventories: New evidence of a trade-off from accounts payable and receivable," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 300-307, February.
    5. Chee K. Ng & Janet Kiholm Smith & Richard L. Smith, 1999. "Evidence on the Determinants of Credit Terms Used in Interfirm Trade," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(3), pages 1109-1129, June.
    6. J. Stephen Ferris, 1981. "A Transactions Theory of Trade Credit Use," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 96(2), pages 243-270.
    7. Schwartz, Robert A., 1974. "An Economic Model of Trade Credit," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(04), pages 643-657, September.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Ellingsen, Tore & Jacobson, Tor & von Schedvin, Erik, 2016. "Trade Credit: Contract-Level Evidence Contradicts Current Theories," Working Paper Series 315, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
    2. Jinjarak, Yothin, 2013. "Supply Chains and Credit-Market Shocks: Some Implications for Emerging Markets," ADBI Working Papers 443, Asian Development Bank Institute.
    3. Galya Taseva, 2012. "Overdue Intercorporate Debts in Bulgaria," Economic Thought journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 3, pages 76-94.
    4. Harald Badinger & Thomas Url, 2013. "Export Credit Guarantees and Export Performance: Evidence from Austrian Firm-level Data," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(9), pages 1115-1130, September.
    5. Simona Mateut & Thanaset Chevapatrakul, 2016. "Customer financing, bargaining power and trade credit uptake," Discussion Papers 2016/04, University of Nottingham, Centre for Finance, Credit and Macroeconomics (CFCM).
    6. Mateut, Simona & Zanchettin, Piercarlo, 2013. "Credit sales and advance payments: Substitutes or complements?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 118(1), pages 173-176.
    7. Mateut, Simona, 2014. "Reverse trade credit or default risk? Explaining the use of prepayments by firms," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 303-326.
    8. Bedendo, Mascia & Garcia-Appendini, Emilia & Siming, Linus, 2017. "Cultural Preferences and the Choice between Formal and Informal Financing," Working Papers on Finance 1707, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance.
    9. Alessandra Guariglia & Simona Mateut, "undated". "Political affiliation and trade credit extension by Chinese firms," Discussion Papers 11/12, University of Nottingham, GEP.
    10. Simona Mateut & Paul Mizen & Ydriss Ziane, "undated". "No Going Back: How the Production Process Affects Access to Short-term Credit," Discussion Papers 12/14, University of Nottingham, Centre for Finance, Credit and Macroeconomics (CFCM).
    11. Tsuruta, Daisuke, 2015. "Bank loan availability and trade credit for small businesses during the financial crisis," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 40-52.
    12. Caglayan, Mustafa & Maioli, Sara & Mateut, Simona, 2012. "Inventories, sales uncertainty, and financial strength," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 2512-2521.
    13. repec:eee:corfin:v:49:y:2018:i:c:p:308-323 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. TSURUTA Daisuke & UCHIDA Hirofumi, 2013. "Real Driver of Trade Credit," Discussion papers 13037, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    15. Anna Białek-Jaworska & Natalia Nehrebecka, 2015. "Rola kredytu handlowego w finansowaniu przedsiębiorstw," Gospodarka Narodowa, Warsaw School of Economics, issue 5, pages 33-64.
    16. Chen, Xiangfeng, 2015. "A model of trade credit in a capital-constrained distribution channel," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 159(C), pages 347-357.
    17. Simona Mateut & Paul Mizen & Ydriss Ziane, "undated". "No Going Back: The Interactions Between Processed Inventories and Trade Credit," Discussion Papers 11/04, University of Nottingham, Centre for Finance, Credit and Macroeconomics (CFCM).
    18. Adalto Barbaceia Gonçalves & Rafael Schiozer & Hsia Hua Sheng, 2018. "Trade Credit and Product Market Power during a Financial Crisis," Working Papers CEB 18-004, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    19. Galia Taseva, 2012. "Trade Credit Terms between the Firms in Bulgaria," Economic Studies journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 4, pages 110-136.
    20. Marta Troya-Martinez, 2013. "Vertical Relational Contracts and Trade Credit," Economics Series Working Papers 648, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    21. Simona Mateut, "undated". "Reverse trade credit - the use of prepayments by French firms," Discussion Papers 11/12, University of Nottingham, Centre for Finance, Credit and Macroeconomics (CFCM).

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • D62 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Externalities
    • D92 - Microeconomics - - Micro-Based Behavioral Economics - - - Intertemporal Firm Choice, Investment, Capacity, and Financing
    • G31 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Capital Budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies
    • L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance

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