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Wages and Employment in a Random Social Network with Arbitrary Degree Distribution

Author

Listed:
  • Yannis M. Ioannides
  • Adriaan R. Soetevent

Abstract

This discussion paper resulted in an article in the 'American Economic Review' (2006). Volume 96, issue 2, pages 270-274. Empirical studies of labor markets show that social contacts are an important source of job-related information [Ioannides and Loury (2004)]. At the same time, wage differences among workers may be explained only in part by differences in individual background characteristics. Such findings motivate our model in which differences in "social connectedness" among otherwise identical workers result in wage inequality and differences in unemployment rates. The paper is related to theoretical contributions by Calvo- Armengol and Jackson (2004) and Calvo-Armengol and Zenou (2005) and builds on the Pissarides (2000) model. Workers may hear about job openings directly from employers or through their social contacts. We go further by introducing heterogeneity in the number of contacts each worker has with others, i.e. in the workers' degree. We utilize results from the technical literature on random graphs with arbitrary degree distributions [Newman, (2003a)] to account for a consequence of workers' receiving information about job openings from their social contacts: they compete with their social contacts' other contacts. For social networks with arbitrary degree distributions we show that people who are better connected receive a higher wage on average and face a lower unemployment rate. Numerical computations for the specific case in which connections follow a Poisson distribution show that variability in connections can result in substantial variation in the above labor market outcomes.
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(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Suggested Citation

  • Yannis M. Ioannides & Adriaan R. Soetevent, 2006. "Wages and Employment in a Random Social Network with Arbitrary Degree Distribution," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 270-274, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:aecrev:v:96:y:2006:i:2:p:270-274 Note: DOI: 10.1257/000282806777212062
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Fontaine, François, 2008. "Why are similar workers paid differently? the role of social networks," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 32(12), pages 3960-3977, December.
    2. Calvo-Armengol, Antoni & Zenou, Yves, 2005. "Job matching, social network and word-of-mouth communication," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(3), pages 500-522, May.
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    10. Yannis M. Ioannides & Linda Datcher Loury, 2004. "Job Information Networks, Neighborhood Effects, and Inequality," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, pages 1056-1093.
    11. Yannis M. Ioannides & Linda Datcher Loury, 2004. "Job Information Networks, Neighborhood Effects, and Inequality," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, pages 1056-1093.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Zaharieva, Anna, 2013. "Double Matching: Social Contacts in a Labour Market with On-the-Job Search," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79891, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    2. Boot, Arnoud W A & Marinc, Matej, 2006. "Competition and Entry in Banking: Implications for Stability and Capital Regulation," CEPR Discussion Papers 5518, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Stupnytska, Yuliia, 2015. "Asymmetric information in a search model with social contacts," Center for Mathematical Economics Working Papers 548, Center for Mathematical Economics, Bielefeld University.
    4. Ma, Yuanyuan & Walsh, Patrick Paul, 2013. "Party Membership and State Jobs in Urban China," IZA Discussion Papers 7643, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Gilbert E. Metcalf, 2006. "Value-Added Tax," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0608, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
    6. Rebien, Martina & Stops, Michael & Zaharieva, Anna, 2017. "Formal search and referrals from a firm's perspective," IAB Discussion Paper 201733, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    7. Leif Brandes & Marc Brechot & Egon Franck, 2011. "The Temptation of Social Ties: When Interpersonal Network Transactions Hurt Firm Performance," Working Papers 00159, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU), revised 2012.
    8. Arbex, Marcelo & Caetano, Sidney & O’Dea, Dennis, 2016. "The implications of labor market network for business cycles," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 144(C), pages 37-40.
    9. Berardi, Nicoletta & Seabright, Paul, 2011. "Professional Network and Career Coevolution," CEPR Discussion Papers 8632, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    10. Sebastian Buhai & Marco van der Leij, 2006. "A Social Network Analysis of Occupational Segregation," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 06-016/1, Tinbergen Institute, revised 08 Nov 2006.
    11. repec:bpj:bejtec:v:17:y:2017:i:2:p:20:n:6 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Trockel, Walter, 2014. "Robustness of intermediate agreements for the discrete Raiffa solution," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, pages 32-36.
    13. Zaharieva, Anna, 2015. "Social contacts and referrals in a labor market with on-the-job search," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 27-43.
    14. Zaharieva, Anna, 2015. "On the Puzzle of Diversification in Social Networks with Occupational Mismatch," Center for Mathematical Economics Working Papers 547, Center for Mathematical Economics, Bielefeld University.
    15. Helsley, Robert W. & Zenou, Yves, 2014. "Social networks and interactions in cities," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 150(C), pages 426-466.
    16. Cabrales, Antonio & Calvó-Armengol, Antoni & Zenou, Yves, 2007. "Effort and synergies in network formation," UC3M Working papers. Economics we072515, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía.
    17. Cappellari, Lorenzo & Tatsiramos, Konstantinos, 2010. "Friends' Networks and Job Finding Rates," IZA Discussion Papers 5240, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    18. Cappellari, Lorenzo & Tatsiramos, Konstantinos, 2015. "With a little help from my friends? Quality of social networks, job finding and job match quality," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 55-75.
    19. Cappellari, Lorenzo & Tatsiramos, Konstantinos, 2011. "Friends’ networks and job finding rates," ISER Working Paper Series 2011-21, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    20. Beland, Louis-Philippe & Boucher, Vincent, 2015. "Polluting politics," Economics Letters, Elsevier, pages 176-181.
    21. Horváth, Gergely, 2014. "Occupational mismatch and social networks," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 442-468.
    22. Judith K. Hellerstein & Mark J. Kutzbach & David Neumark, 2015. "Labor Market Networks and Recovery from Mass Layoffs Before, During, and After the Great Recession," Working Papers 15-14, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    23. Stupnytska, Yuliia & Zaharieva, Anna, 2015. "Explaining U-shape of the referral hiring pattern in a search model with heterogeneous workers," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 211-233.
    24. Stupnytska, Yuliia & Zaharieva, Anna, 2015. "Explaining the U-Shape of the Referral Hiring Pattern in a Search Model with Heterogeneous Workers," Center for Mathematical Economics Working Papers 511, Center for Mathematical Economics, Bielefeld University.
    25. Vincent Boucher & Marion Goussé, 2015. "Wage Dynamics and Peer Referrals," Cahiers de recherche 1514, CIRPEE.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D83 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge; Communication; Belief; Unawareness
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search

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