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International Migration and Gender Discrimination among Children Left Behind


  • Francisca M. Antman


This paper considers how international migration of the head of household affects the allocation of resources toward boys relative to girls within households remaining in the home country. I address the endogeneity of migration with a differences-in-differences style regression model that compares those households in which migrants have already returned home with those in which migrants are still away. The evidence suggests that while the head of household is away a greater fraction of resources are spent on girls relative to boys, but upon his return, this pattern is reversed.

Suggested Citation

  • Francisca M. Antman, 2011. "International Migration and Gender Discrimination among Children Left Behind," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(3), pages 645-649, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:aecrev:v:101:y:2011:i:3:p:645-49

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Esther Duflo, 2003. "Grandmothers and Granddaughters: Old-Age Pensions and Intrahousehold Allocation in South Africa," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(1), pages 1-25, June.
    2. Francisca Antman, 2012. "Gender, educational attainment, and the impact of parental migration on children left behind," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 25(4), pages 1187-1214, October.
    3. David McKenzie & Hillel Rapoport, 2011. "Can migration reduce educational attainment? Evidence from Mexico," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 24(4), pages 1331-1358, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. Francisca M. Antman, 2013. "The impact of migration on family left behind," Chapters,in: International Handbook on the Economics of Migration, chapter 16, pages 293-308 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. Costanza Biavaschi & Corrado Giulietti & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2015. "Sibling Influence on the Human Capital of the Left-Behind," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 9(4), pages 403-438.
    3. Clifton-Sprigg, Joanna, 2015. "Educational spillovers and parental migration," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 64-75.
    4. Antman, Francisca M., 2018. "Women and Migration," IZA Discussion Papers 11282, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Francisca M. Antman, 2014. "Spousal employment and intra-household bargaining power," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(8), pages 560-563, May.
    6. Clifton-Sprigg, Joanna, 2014. "Educational spillovers and parental migration," 2007 Annual Meeting, July 29-August 1, 2007, Portland, Oregon TN 2015-46, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    7. Frölich, Markus & Huber, Martin, 2014. "Direct and Indirect Treatment Effects: Causal Chains and Mediation Analysis with Instrumental Variables," IZA Discussion Papers 8280, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Lara, Jaime, 2015. "International migration and human capital in Mexico: Networks or parental absence?," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 131-142.
    9. Cebotari, Victor & Siegel, Melissa & Mazzucato, Valentina, 2016. "Migration and the education of children who stay behind in Moldova and Georgia," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 96-107.
    10. Ferrant, Gaëlle & Tuccio, Michele, 2015. "South–South Migration and Discrimination Against Women in Social Institutions: A Two-way Relationship," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 240-254.
    11. Zhang, Yi & Matz, Julia Anna, 2017. "On the train to brain gain in rural China," Discussion Papers 252443, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
    12. Sanjaya DeSilva, 2013. "Long-Term Benefits from Temporary Migration: Does the Gender of the Migrant Matter?," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_756, Levy Economics Institute.
    13. Bargain, Olivier & Boutin, Delphine, 2014. "Remittances and Child Labour in Africa: Evidence from Burkina Faso," IZA Discussion Papers 8007, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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