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Within Cities and Suburbs: Racial Residential Concentration and the Spatial Distribution of Employment Opportunities across Submetropolitan Areas

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  • M. A. Stoll
  • H. J. Holzer
  • K. R. Ihlanfeldt

Abstract

In this paper, we examine and compare the spatial distributions of jobs and people across submetropolitan areas using data on firms from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality and data on people from the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The results indicate that less-educated people and those on public assistance mostly reside in areas with high minority populations. Low-skill jobs are quite scarce in these areas, while the availability of such jobs relative to less-educated people in heavily white suburban areas is high. Large fractions of the low-skill jobs in these metropolitan areas are not accessible by public transit. Furthermore, there is significant variation within both central cities and suburbs in the ethnic composition of residents and in the availability of low-skill jobs. The ability of various minority groups to gain employment in each area depends heavily on the ethnic composition of the particular area.

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Paper provided by University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty in its series Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers with number 1189-99.

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Handle: RePEc:wop:wispod:1189-99

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  1. Lawrence F. Katz & Jeffrey R. Kling & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 2001. "Moving To Opportunity In Boston: Early Results Of A Randomized Mobility Experiment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 116(2), pages 607-654, May.
  2. Holzer, Harry J. & Reaser, Jess, 2000. "Black Applicants, Black Employees, and Urban Labor Market Policy," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 365-387, November.
  3. Katherine M. O'Regan and John M. Quigley., 1996. "Spatial Effects upon Employment Outcomes: The Case of New Jersey Teenagers," Economics Working Papers, University of California at Berkeley 96-247, University of California at Berkeley.
  4. Holzer Harry J. & Ihlanfeldt Keith R. & Sjoquist David L., 1994. "Work, Search, and Travel among White and Black Youth," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 320-345, May.
  5. H. J. Holzer & K. R. Ihlanfeldt, . "Spatial factors and the employment of blacks at the firm level," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty 1086-96, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
  6. Jonathan S. Leonard, 1984. "The Interaction of Residential Segregation and Employment Discrimination," NBER Working Papers 1274, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Ihlanfeldt, Keith R., 1997. "Information on the Spatial Distribution of Job Opportunities within Metropolitan Areas," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 218-242, March.
  8. David T. Ellwood, 1986. "The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis: Are There Teenage Jobs Missing in the Ghetto?," NBER Chapters, in: The Black Youth Employment Crisis, pages 147-190 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Michael A. Stoll, 1999. "Spatial mismatch, discrimination, and male youth employment in the Washington, DC area: Implications for residential mobility policies," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(1), pages 77-98.
  10. Evelyn Blumenberg & Paul Ong, 1998. "Job accessibility and welfare usage: Evidence from Los Angeles," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(4), pages 639-657.
  11. Price, Richard & Mills, Edwin, 1985. "Race and residence in earnings determination," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 1-18, January.
  12. Raphael, Steven, 1998. "The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis and Black Youth Joblessness: Evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 79-111, January.
  13. Daniel Immergluck, 1996. "What employers want: Job prospects for less-educated workers," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 135-143, June.
  14. H. J. Holzer & S. Danziger, . "Are Jobs Available for Disadvantaged Workers in Urban Areas?," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty 1157-98, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
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