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Public Transit and the Spatial Distribution of Minority Employment: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

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  • Holzer, Harry J.
  • Quigley, John M.
  • Raphael, Steven

Abstract

A recent expansion of the San Francisco Bay Area’s heavy rail system represents an exogenous change in the accessibility of inner-city minority communities to a concentrated suburban employment center. We evaluate this natural experiment by conducting a two-wave longitudinal survey of firms, with the first wave of inter- views conducted immediately before the opening of service, and the second wave approximately a year later. Within-firm changes in the propensity to hire minority workers for firms near the station were compared with those located farther away. Also estimated was the effect of employer distance to the new stations on changes in propensity to hire minorities. Results indicate a sizable increase in the hiring of Latinos near the new stations, but little evidence of an effect on black hiring rates.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy in its series Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy, Working Paper Series with number qt0f3725dm.

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Date of creation: 24 May 2004
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Handle: RePEc:cdl:bphupl:qt0f3725dm

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Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences;

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References

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  1. Trejo, Stephen J, 1997. "Why Do Mexican Americans Earn Low Wages?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(6), pages 1235-68, December.
  2. Katherine M. O'Regan and John M. Quigley., 1996. "Spatial Effects upon Employment Outcomes: The Case of New Jersey Teenagers," Economics Working Papers 96-247, University of California at Berkeley.
  3. Cutler, David M & Glaeser, Edward L, 1997. "Are Ghettos Good or Bad?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 112(3), pages 827-72, August.
  4. Edward L. Glaeser & Matthew E. Kahn & Jordan Rappaport, 2000. "Why Do The Poor Live In Cities?," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1891, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  5. Keith Ihlanfeldt, 1992. "Job Accessibility and the Employment and School Enrollment of Teenagers," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number jaes.
  6. M. A. Stoll & H. J. Holzer & K. R. Ihlanfeldt, . "Within Cities and Suburbs: Racial Residential Concentration and the Spatial Distribution of Employment Opportunities across Submetropolitan Areas," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1189-99, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
  7. O'Regan, Katherine M. & Quigley, John M., 1999. "Spacial Isolation and Welfare Recipients: What Do We Know?," Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy, Working Paper Series qt1mz642ft, Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy.
  8. Raphael, Steven & Stoll, Michael A. & Holzer, Harry J., 2000. "Are Suburban Firms More Likely to Discriminate against African-Americans?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 485-508, November.
  9. Steven Raphael & Michael A. Stoll, 2000. "Can Boosting Minority Car-Ownership Rates Narrow Inter-Racial Employment Gaps," JCPR Working Papers 200, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
  10. Ihlanfeldt, Keith R & Sjoquist, David L, 1990. "Job Accessibility and Racial Differences in Youth Employment Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(1), pages 267-76, March.
  11. Ihlanfeldt, Keith R & Young, Madelyn V, 1996. "The Spatial Distribution of Black Employment between the Central City and the Suburbs," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 34(4), pages 693-707, October.
  12. H. J. Holzer & K. R. Ihlanfeldt, . "Spatial factors and the employment of blacks at the firm level," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1086-96, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
  13. Daniel Immergluck, 1996. "What employers want: Job prospects for less-educated workers," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 135-143, June.
  14. David T. Ellwood, 1986. "The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis: Are There Teenage Jobs Missing in the Ghetto?," NBER Chapters, in: The Black Youth Employment Crisis, pages 147-190 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Steven Raphael, 1998. "Inter- and intra-ethnic comparisons of the central cityûsuburban youth employment differential: Evidence from the Oakland metropolitan area," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 51(3), pages 505-524, April.
  16. Michael A. Stoll, 1999. "Spatial mismatch, discrimination, and male youth employment in the Washington, DC area: Implications for residential mobility policies," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(1), pages 77-98.
  17. Weinberg, Bruce A., 2000. "Black Residential Centralization and the Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 110-134, July.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Gautier, Pieter A & Zenou, Yves, 2008. "Car Ownership and the Labour Market of Ethnic Minorities," CEPR Discussion Papers 7061, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Jackson, C. Kirabo & Owens, Emily Greene, 2011. "One for the road: Public transportation, alcohol consumption, and intoxicated driving," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(1-2), pages 106-121, February.
  3. Gary King & Emmanuela Gakidou & Nirmala Ravishankar & Ryan T. Moore & Jason Lakin & Manett Vargas & Martha Mar�a Téllez-Rojo & Juan Eugenio Hernández �vila & Mauricio Hernández �vila & Hécto, 2007. "A “politically robust” experimental design for public policy evaluation, with application to the Mexican Universal Health Insurance program," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(3), pages 479-506.
  4. GOBILLON Laurent & SELOD Harris & ZENOU Yves, 2007. "The mechanisms of spatial mismatch," Research Unit Working Papers 0701, Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquee, INRA.
  5. Weinberg, Bruce A., 2004. "Testing the spatial mismatch hypothesis using inter-city variations in industrial composition," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 505-532, September.
  6. Åslund, Olof & Östh, John & Zenou, Yves, 2006. "How Important is Access to Jobs? Old Question - Improved Answer," Working Paper Series 661, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  7. Nathalie Georges & Yannick L'Horty & Florent Sari, 2012. "Comment réduire la fracture spatiale? Une application en Ile-de-France," Working Papers halshs-00809586, HAL.
  8. Fredrik Andersson & John Haltiwanger & Mark Kutzbach & Henry Pollakowski & Daniel Weinberg, 2011. "Job Displacement and the Duration of Joblessness: The Role of Spatial Mismatch," Working Papers 11-30, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  9. Pieter A. Gautier & Yves Zenou, 2008. "Car ownership and the Labor Market of Ethnic Minorities," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 08-106/3, Tinbergen Institute.

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