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Public Transit and the Spatial Distribution of Minority Employment: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

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Author Info

  • Holzer, Harry J.
  • Quigley, John M.
  • Raphael, Steven

Abstract

A recent expansion of the San Francisco Bay Area’s heavy rail system represents an exogenous change in the accessibility of inner-city minority communities to a concentrated suburban employment center. We evaluate this natural experiment by conducting a two-wave longitudinal survey of firms, with the first wave of interviews conducted immediately before the opening of service, and the second wave approximately a year later. Within-firm changes in the propensity to hire minority workers for firms near the station were compared with those located farther away. Also estimated was the effect of employer distance to the new stations on changes in propensity to hire minorities. Results indicate a sizable increase in the hiring of Latinos near the new stations, but little evidence of an effect on black hiring rates.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of California Transportation Center in its series University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers with number qt1x09f824.

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Date of creation: 01 Sep 2003
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Handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt1x09f824

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Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences;

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References

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  1. Edward L. Glaeser & Matthew E. Kahn & Jordan Rappaport, 2000. "Why Do the Poor Live in Cities?," NBER Working Papers 7636, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Raphael, Steven & Stoll, Michael A. & Holzer, Harry J., 2000. "Are Suburban Firms More Likely to Discriminate against African-Americans?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 485-508, November.
  3. O'Regan, Katherine M. & Quigley, John M., 1996. "Spatial Effects Upon Employment Outcomes: The Case of New Jersey Teenagers," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt6cw7b2w7, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  4. Weinberg, Bruce A., 2000. "Black Residential Centralization and the Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 110-134, July.
  5. Ihlanfeldt, Keith R & Young, Madelyn V, 1996. "The Spatial Distribution of Black Employment between the Central City and the Suburbs," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 34(4), pages 693-707, October.
  6. Steven Raphael & Michael A. Stoll, 2000. "Can Boosting Minority Car-Ownership Rates Narrow Inter-Racial Employment Gaps," JCPR Working Papers 200, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
  7. Steven Raphael, 1998. "Inter- and intra-ethnic comparisons of the central cityûsuburban youth employment differential: Evidence from the Oakland metropolitan area," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 51(3), pages 505-524, April.
  8. Keith Ihlanfeldt, 1992. "Job Accessibility and the Employment and School Enrollment of Teenagers," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number jaes.
  9. David M. Cutler & Edward L. Glaeser, 1995. "Are Ghettos Good or Bad?," NBER Working Papers 5163, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. M. A. Stoll & H. J. Holzer & K. R. Ihlanfeldt, . "Within Cities and Suburbs: Racial Residential Concentration and the Spatial Distribution of Employment Opportunities across Submetropolitan Areas," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1189-99, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
  11. Daniel Immergluck, 1996. "What employers want: Job prospects for less-educated workers," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 135-143, June.
  12. Harry J. Holzer & Keith R. Ihlanfeldt, 1996. "Spatial factors and the employment of blacks at the firm level," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue May, pages 65-86.
  13. David T. Ellwood, 1986. "The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis: Are There Teenage Jobs Missing in the Ghetto?," NBER Chapters, in: The Black Youth Employment Crisis, pages 147-190 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Trejo, Stephen J, 1997. "Why Do Mexican Americans Earn Low Wages?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(6), pages 1235-68, December.
  15. Ihlanfeldt, Keith R & Sjoquist, David L, 1990. "Job Accessibility and Racial Differences in Youth Employment Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(1), pages 267-76, March.
  16. Michael A. Stoll, 1999. "Spatial mismatch, discrimination, and male youth employment in the Washington, DC area: Implications for residential mobility policies," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(1), pages 77-98.
  17. O'Regan, Katherine M. & Quigley, John M., 1999. "Spacial Isolation and Welfare Recipients: What Do We Know?," Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy, Working Paper Series qt1mz642ft, Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy.
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