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Are Suburban Firms More Likely to Discriminate against African-Americans?

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  • Raphael, Steven
  • Stoll, Michael A.
  • Holzer, Harry J.

Abstract

This paper presents a test of the hypothesis that employers in suburban locations are more likely to discriminate against African Americans than are employers located in central cities. Using a difference-in-difference framework, we compare central-city/suburban differences in racial hiring outcomes for firms where a white person is in charge of hiring (white employers, for short) to similar geographic differences in outcomes for firms where a black person is in charge of hiring (black employers). We find that both suburban black and white employers hire fewer blacks than their central-city counterparts. Moreover, the central-city/suburban hiring gap among black employers is as large as, or larger than, that of white employers. Suburban black employers, however, receive many more applications from blacks and hire more blacks than do white firms in either location.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Urban Economics.

Volume (Year): 48 (2000)
Issue (Month): 3 (November)
Pages: 485-508

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Handle: RePEc:eee:juecon:v:48:y:2000:i:3:p:485-508

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622905

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References

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  1. Steven Raphael, 1998. "Inter- and intra-ethnic comparisons of the central cityûsuburban youth employment differential: Evidence from the Oakland metropolitan area," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 51(3), pages 505-524, April.
  2. Keith Ihlanfeldt, 1992. "Job Accessibility and the Employment and School Enrollment of Teenagers," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number jaes, December.
  3. Katherine M. O'Regan and John M. Quigley., 1996. "Spatial Effects upon Employment Outcomes: The Case of New Jersey Teenagers," Economics Working Papers 96-247, University of California at Berkeley.
  4. Ihlanfeldt, Keith R & Sjoquist, David L, 1990. "Job Accessibility and Racial Differences in Youth Employment Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(1), pages 267-76, March.
  5. Harry J. Holzer & Keith R. Ihlanfeldt, 1996. "Spatial factors and the employment of blacks at the firm level," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue May, pages 65-86.
  6. William Frey & Reynolds Farley, 1996. "Latino, Asian, and black segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas: Are multiethnic metros different," Demography, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 35-50, February.
  7. Holzer, Harry J. & Reaser, Jess, 2000. "Black Applicants, Black Employees, and Urban Labor Market Policy," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 365-387, November.
  8. Marc Bendick & Charles Jackson & Victor Reinoso, 1994. "Measuring employment discrimination through controlled experiments," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer, vol. 23(1), pages 25-48, June.
  9. Harry J. Holzer & Keith R. Ihlanfeldt, 1998. "Customer Discrimination And Employment Outcomes For Minority Workers," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 113(3), pages 835-867, August.
  10. Holzer Harry J. & Ihlanfeldt Keith R. & Sjoquist David L., 1994. "Work, Search, and Travel among White and Black Youth," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 320-345, May.
  11. Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226041162, October.
  12. Timothy Bates, 1994. "Utilization of minority employees in small business: A comparison of nonminority and black-owned urban enterprises," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer, vol. 23(1), pages 113-121, June.
  13. David T. Ellwood, 1986. "The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis: Are There Teenage Jobs Missing in the Ghetto?," NBER Chapters, in: The Black Youth Employment Crisis, pages 147-190 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Leonard, Jonathan S., 1987. "The interaction of residential segregation and employment discrimination," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 323-346, May.
  15. Ihlanfeldt, Keith R & Young, Madelyn V, 1996. "The Spatial Distribution of Black Employment between the Central City and the Suburbs," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 34(4), pages 693-707, October.
  16. Michael A. Stoll, 1999. "Spatial mismatch, discrimination, and male youth employment in the Washington, DC area: Implications for residential mobility policies," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(1), pages 77-98.
  17. Daniel Immergluck, 1996. "What employers want: Job prospects for less-educated workers," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 135-143, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Marianne Bertrand & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2003. "Are emily and greg more employable than lakisha and jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination," Natural Field Experiments 00216, The Field Experiments Website.
  2. Nicolas Jacquemet & Constantine Yannelis, 2011. "Indiscriminate Discrimination: A Correspondence Test for Ethnic Homophily in the Chicago Labor Market," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 11013, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
  3. Laurent Gobillon & Harris Selod & Yves Zenou, 2005. "The mechanisms of spatial mismatch," Research Unit Working Papers 0510, Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquee, INRA.
  4. Harry J. Holzer & Steven Raphael & Michael A. Stoll, 2001. "Will Employers Hire Ex-Offenders? Employer Preferences, Background Checks, and Their Determinants," JCPR Working Papers 238, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
  5. Holzer, Harry J. & Quigley, John M. & Raphael, Steven, 2003. "Public Transit and the Spatial Distribution of Minority Employment: Evidence from a Natural Experiment," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt1x09f824, University of California Transportation Center.
  6. Harry J. Holzer, . "Black Applicants, Black Employees, and Urban Labor Market Policy," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1162-98, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
  7. Marianne Bertrand & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2003. "Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination," NBER Working Papers 9873, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Hamermesh, Daniel S., 1999. "LEEping into the future of labor economics: the research potential of linking employer and employee data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 25-41, March.
  9. repec:hal:journl:hal-00745109 is not listed on IDEAS
  10. Selod, Harris & Zenou, Yves, 2003. "Does City Structure Affect the Labor Market Outcomes of Black Workers?," IZA Discussion Papers 928, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. repec:hal:cesptp:hal-00745109 is not listed on IDEAS
  12. Ted Mouw, 2002. "Are black workers missing the connection? The effect of spatial distance and employee referrals on interfirm racial segregation," Demography, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 507-528, August.

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