Promotion with and without learning : effects on student enrollment and dropout behavior
AbstractMany educators and policymakers have argued for lenient grade promotion policy - even automatic promotion - in developing country settings where grade retention rates are high. The argument assumes that grade retention discourages persistence or continuation in school and that the promotion of children with lower achievement does not hamper their ability or their peers'ability to perform at the next level. Alternatively, promoting students into grades for which they are not prepared may lead to early dropout behavior. This study shows that in a sample of schools from the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan, students are promoted primarily on the basis of merit. An econometric decomposition of promotion decisions into a component that is based on merit indicators (attendance and achievement in mathematics and language) and another that is uncorrelated with those indicators allows a test of whether parental decisions to keep their child in school is influenced by merit-based or non-merit-based promotions. Results suggest that the enrollment decision is significantly influenced by whether learning has taken place, and that grade promotion that is uncorrelated with merit has a negligible impact on school continuation.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 4722.
Date of creation: 01 Sep 2008
Date of revision:
Tertiary Education; Education For All; Secondary Education; Primary Education; Teaching and Learning;
Other versions of this item:
- King, Elizabeth M. & Orazem, Peter & Paterno, Elizabeth M., 2008. "Promotion with and Without Learning: Effects on Student Enrollment and Dropout Behavior," Staff General Research Papers, Iowa State University, Department of Economics 12968, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2008-09-29 (All new papers)
- NEP-CWA-2008-09-29 (Central & Western Asia)
- NEP-DEV-2008-09-29 (Development)
- NEP-EDU-2008-09-29 (Education)
- NEP-LAB-2008-09-29 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-URE-2008-09-29 (Urban & Real Estate Economics)
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