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School Quality, School Cost, and the Public/Private School Choices of Low-Income Households in Pakistan

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Author Info

  • Alderman, Harold
  • Orazem, Peter
  • Paterno, Elizabeth M.

Abstract

Variation in school attributes, proximity, and fees across neighborhoods is used to identify factors which affect whether poor households send their children to government school, private school, or no school. Analysis shows that even the poorest households use private schools extensively, and that utilization increases with income. Lowering private school fees or distance or raising measured quality raises private school enrollments, partly by transfers from government schools and partly from enrollments of children who otherwise would not have gone to school. The strong demand for private schools is consistent with evidence of greater mathematics and language achievement in private schools than in government schools. These results strongly support an increased role for private delivery of schooling services to poor households in developing countries.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Iowa State University, Department of Economics in its series Staff General Research Papers with number 1970.

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Date of creation: 01 Apr 2001
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Publication status: Published in Journal of Human Resources, Spring 2001, vol. 36 no. 2, pp. 304-326
Handle: RePEc:isu:genres:1970

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Postal: Iowa State University, Dept. of Economics, 260 Heady Hall, Ames, IA 50011-1070
Phone: +1 515.294.6741
Fax: +1 515.294.0221
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Web page: http://www.econ.iastate.edu
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References

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  1. Gertler, Paul & Glewwe, Paul, 1990. "The willingness to pay for education in developing countries : Evidence from rural Peru," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 251-275, August.
  2. Kim, Jooseop & Alderman, Harold & Orazem, Peter, 1999. "Can Private School Subsidies Increase Schooling for the Poor? The Quetta Urban Fellowship Program," Staff General Research Papers 1709, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  3. Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Wolpin, Kenneth I., 1984. "Migration Selectivity and the Effects of Public Programs," Bulletins 8442, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
  4. Hammer, Jeffrey S, 1997. "Economic Analysis for Health Projects," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 12(1), pages 47-71, February.
  5. Cox, Donald & Jimenez, Emmanuel, 1990. "The relative effectiveness of private and public schools : Evidence from two developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1-2), pages 99-121, November.
  6. Harold Alderman & Jere R. Behrman & David R. Ross & Richard Sabot, 1996. "Decomposing the Gender Gap in Cognitive Skills in a Poor Rural Economy," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(1), pages 229-254.
  7. Eric A. Hanushek, . "Interpreting Recent Research on Schooling in Developing Countries," Wallis Working Papers WP3, University of Rochester - Wallis Institute of Political Economy.
  8. Daniel McFadden, 1996. "Computing Willingness-to-Pay in Random Utility Models," Working Papers _011, University of California at Berkeley, Econometrics Laboratory Software Archive.
  9. Kingdon, Geeta, 1996. "The Quality and Efficiency of Private and Public Education: A Case-Study of Urban India," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(1), pages 57-82, February.
  10. Herriges, Joseph A. & Kling, Catherine L., 1999. "Nonlinear Income Effects in Random Utility Models," Staff General Research Papers 1494, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  11. Lee, Lung-Fei, 1983. "Generalized Econometric Models with Selectivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(2), pages 507-12, March.
  12. Alderman, Harold & Watkins, Susan Cotts & Kohler, Hans-Peter & Maluccio, John A. & Behrman, Jere R., 2000. "Attrition in longitudinal household survey data," FCND discussion papers 96, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  13. Glick, Peter & Sahn, David E., 2006. "The demand for primary schooling in Madagascar: Price, quality, and the choice between public and private providers," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 118-145, February.
  14. Harvey S. Rosen & Kenneth A. Small, 1981. "Applied Welfare Economics with Discrete Choice Models," NBER Working Papers 0319, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Deaton, Angus, 1988. "Quality, Quantity, and Spatial Variation of Price," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(3), pages 418-30, June.
  16. Jimenez, Emmanuel & Lockheed, Marlaine E & Paqueo, Vicente, 1991. "The Relative Efficiency of Private and Public Schools in Developing Countries," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 6(2), pages 205-18, July.
  17. Kremer, Michael R, 1995. "Research on Schooling: What We Know and What We Don't: A Comment," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 10(2), pages 247-54, August.
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