The end of the multifibre arrangement (MFA) and the heterogeneous performance of quota-constrained countries
AbstractOn 1 January 2005, the international trade in textile and clothing was freed from the quota restrictions that had persisted for more than four decades. This study tests one of the predictions that countries effectively constrained by quotas in the major world markets will increase their exports at the expense of non-quota-constrained suppliers. The focus is on clothing imports of the two major markets, the US and EU-15. These markets are separately analysed as they constitute different lists of quota-constrained countries, QCCs. Unlike others, this study uses a relatively longer data set of post-quota years, which allows us to understand the medium-term adjustment process of exporters following quota removal. We find a large amount of heterogeneity among the QCCs in their post-quota export performance. Only a few QCCs have benefited at the expense of not only the non-quota countries but also fellow QCCs. The estimates show that almost half of the QCCs were better off under the quota regime at least in terms of exports. The factors most likely to have influenced their heterogeneous performance are also examined.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT) in its series MERIT Working Papers with number 035.
Date of creation: 2013
Date of revision:
Global apparel trade; Quotas; MFA; Heterogeneous country performance; Trade Quota; Textile Industry; Clothing Industry; Multifibre Arrangement; QCC; export performance; trade policy;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
- F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
- L67 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Other Consumer Nondurables
- O24 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy - - - Trade Policy; Factor Movement; Foreign Exchange Policy
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Wolfers, Justin, 2003.
"Did Unilateral Divorce Laws Raise Divorce Rates? A Reconciliation and New Results,"
1819, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
- Justin Wolfers, 2006. "Did Unilateral Divorce Laws Raise Divorce Rates? A Reconciliation and New Results," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(5), pages 1802-1820, December.
- Justin Wolfers, 2003. "Did Unilateral Divorce Laws Raise Divorce Rates? A Reconciliation and New Results," NBER Working Papers 10014, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Richard Baldwin & James Harrigan, 2011.
"Zeros, Quality, and Space: Trade Theory and Trade Evidence,"
American Economic Journal: Microeconomics,
American Economic Association, vol. 3(2), pages 60-88, May.
- Baldwin, Richard & Harrigan, James, 2007. "Zeros, Quality and Space: Trade Theory and Trade Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 6368, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Richard Baldwin & James Harrigan, 2007. "Zeros, Quality and Space: Trade Theory and Trade Evidence," NBER Working Papers 13214, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Richard Avisse & Michel Fouquin, 2001. "Textiles and Clothing: the End of Discriminatory Protection," La Lettre du CEPII, CEPII research center, issue 198.
- Anderson, James E, 1979. "A Theoretical Foundation for the Gravity Equation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(1), pages 106-16, March.
- Brenton, Paul & Hoppe, Mombert, 2007. "Clothing and export diversification : still a route to growth for low-income countries ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4343, The World Bank.
- Garth Frazer & Johannes Van Biesebroeck, 2007.
"Trade Growth under the African Growth and Opportunity Act,"
NBER Working Papers
13222, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Garth Frazer & Johannes Van Biesebroeck, 2010. "Trade Growth under the African Growth and Opportunity Act," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 92(1), pages 128-144, February.
- Garth Frazer & Johannes Van Biesebroeck, 2007. "Trade Growth under the African Growth and Opportunity Act," Working Papers tecipa-289, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
- Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 2005. "Fixed-Effects and Related Estimators for Correlated Random-Coefficient and Treatment-Effect Panel Data Models," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(2), pages 385-390, May.
- Arellano, M, 1987. "Computing Robust Standard Errors for Within-Groups Estimators," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 49(4), pages 431-34, November.
- Jean-François Arvis & Yann Duval & Ben Shepherd & Chorthip Utoktham, 2012.
"Trade Costs in the Developing World:1995 – 2010,"
12112, Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT), an initiative of UNESCAP and IDRC, Canada..
- repec:nbr:nberwo:13346 is not listed on IDEAS
- María Inés Terra, 2003. "Trade Liberalization in Latin American Countries and the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing in the WTO," Economie Internationale, CEPII research center, issue 94-95, pages 137-154.
- MacDonald, Stephen & Pan, Suwen & Somwaru, Agapi & Tuan, Francis C., 2004. "China'S Role In World Cotton And Textile Markets," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20054, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- David Hummels, 2007. "Transportation Costs and International Trade in the Second Era of Globalization," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 131-154, Summer.
- Falvey, Rodney E, 1979. "The Composition of Trade within Import-restricted Product Categories," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(5), pages 1105-14, October.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ad Notten).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.