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Gründungshemmnisse in Marktmechanismen und Marktumfeld: Facetten empirischer Evidenz
[Start-up Barriers in Germany: A Review of the Empirical Literature]

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Author Info

  • Block, Jörn
  • Brockmann, Heiner
  • Klandt, Heinz
  • Kohn, Karsten

Abstract

Vor dem Hintergrund von Markt- und Staatsversagenstatbeständen leitet die wirtschaftstheoretische Literatur mögliche Hemmnisse für Existenzgründungen ab. Die vorliegende Studie unternimmt eine Systematisierung unterschiedlicher Facetten entsprechender empirischer Evidenz. Hierbei liegt ein Schwerpunkt auf Studien für Deutschland. Diese Studien identifizieren verschiedene Hemmnisse auf Faktor- und Absatzmärkten, wobei besonderes Augenmerk auf die Existenz von Finanzierungsschwierigkeiten gerichtet wird. So zeigen Gründer- und Unternehmensbefragungen, dass sich insbesondere innovative Gründer und kleine, junge Unternehmen auf Finanzmärkten Schwierigkeiten bei der Mittelbeschaffung gegenübersehen; auf Arbeitsmärkten fällt es Gründungen im Vergleich zu etablierten Unternehmen schwerer qualifiziertes Personal zu gewinnen; und beim Eintritt in einen Absatzmarkt werden Kundensuche und Auftragsakquisition als schwierig empfunden, während auf der Lieferantenseite kaum Hindernisse gesehen werden. Hinsichtlich staatlicher Rahmenbedingungen deuten Umfragestudien und internationale Institutionenvergleiche darauf hin, dass bürokratische Hürden und Regelungen des Arbeits- und des Insolvenzrechts gründungshemmend wirken können. Steht schließlich die Gründerperson im Blickfeld, so zeigen individualpsychologische Studien, dass in Deutschland gründungshemmende Defizite im Bereich der persönlichen Risikotoleranz sowie beim Vertrauen in eigene unternehmerische Fähigkeiten bestehen. Andererseits sind einige gründungsförderliche Eigenschaften wie z. B. Leistungsbereitschaft im Ländervergleich stark ausgeprägt. Insgesamt legt unsere Synopsis eine Vielzahl von Gründungshemmnissen offen, deren Existenz durch eine breite Palette empirischer Evidenz untermauert ist. Wie allerdings diese Hemmnisse, die beispielsweise aus internationalen Vergleichen institutioneller Rahmenbedingungen herauszulesen sind oder die im Zuge von Umfragestudien artikuliert werden, letztendlich einzuordnen sind und ob sie tatsächlich auf Marktversagen (bspw. bei der Gründungsfinanzierung) oder Staatsversagen (bspw. im Zusammenhang mit rechtlichen Rahmensetzungen) zurückzuführen sind, bleibt trotz der Fülle empirischer Studien offen – zu defizitär sind häufig die Datengrundlagen und verwendeten Methoden, die hinreichend abgesicherte Aussagen diesbezüglich ermöglichen würden.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 9358.

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Date of creation: 28 Jun 2008
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:9358

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Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Existenzgründung; Gründungshemmnis; Empirie; Deutschland;

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References

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Cited by:
  1. Alexander S. Kritikos & Christoph Kneiding & Claas Christian Germelmann, 2009. "Demand Side Analysis of Microlending Markets in Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 903, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.

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