Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Does economic growth cause terrorism in Pakistan?

Contents:

Author Info

  • Muhammad, Shahbaz
  • Muhammad, Nasir Malik
  • Muhammad, Shahbaz Shabbir

Abstract

This paper analyzes the relationship between terrorism and economic growth for Pakistan by incorporating capital and trade openness. We used the data from 1971-2010 and have applied ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration to examine the long run relationship between the variables. The VECM Granger causality approach is used to detect the direction of causality between terrorism and economic growth. Our empirical results confirm the existence of long run relationship between economic growth and terrorism. The Granger causality analysis indicates bidirectional causality between terrorism and capital, trade openness and capital, and terrorism and trade openness. However, unidirectional causality is found running from economic growth to terrorism.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/35101/
File Function: original version
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 35101.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: 20 Nov 2011
Date of revision: 30 Nov 2011
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:35101

Contact details of provider:
Postal: Schackstr. 4, D-80539 Munich, Germany
Phone: +49-(0)89-2180-2219
Fax: +49-(0)89-2180-3900
Web page: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: Terrorism; Economic Growth; Cointegration and Causality;

Find related papers by JEL classification:

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Baum, Christopher F., 2004. "A review of Stata 8.1 and its time series capabilities," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 151-161.
  2. Bruno S. Frey & Simon Luechinger & Alois Stutzer, 2004. "Calculating Tragedy: Assessing the Costs of Terrorism," CESifo Working Paper Series 1341, CESifo Group Munich.
  3. Muhammad Shahbaz & Nadeem Ahmad & Abu Wahid, 2010. "Savings–Investment Correlation and Capital Outflow: The Case of Pakistan," Transition Studies Review, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 80-97, May.
  4. Eckstein, Zvi & Tsiddon, Daniel, 2004. "Macroeconomic Consequences of Terror: Theory and the Case of Israel," CEPR Discussion Papers 4427, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. Freytag, Andreas & Krüger, Jens J. & Meierrieks, Daniel & Schneider, Friedrich, 2011. "The origins of terrorism: Cross-country estimates of socio-economic determinants of terrorism," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 27(S1), pages S5-S16.
  6. Banerjee, Abhijit V & Newman, Andrew F, 1993. "Occupational Choice and the Process of Development," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 274-98, April.
  7. Graham Elliott & Thomas J. Rothenberg & James H. Stock, 1992. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," NBER Technical Working Papers 0130, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Serena Ng & Pierre Perron, 2001. "LAG Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Tests with Good Size and Power," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1519-1554, November.
  9. Malcolm Knight & Norman Loayza & Delano Villanueva, 1996. "The Peace Dividend: Military Spending Cuts and Economic Growth," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 43(1), pages 1-37, March.
  10. Enders, Walter & Sandler, Todd, 1996. "Terrorism and Foreign Direct Investment in Spain and Greece," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(3), pages 331-52.
  11. Mirza, Daniel & Verdier, Thierry, 2008. "International trade, security and transnational terrorism: Theory and a survey of empirics," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 179-194, June.
  12. Ana Bela Santos Bravo & Carlos Manuel Mendes Dias, 2006. "An Empirical Analysis Of Terrorism: Deprivation, Islamism And Geopolitical Factors," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(4), pages 329-341.
  13. Nitsch, Volker & Schumacher, Dieter, 2004. "Terrorism and international trade: an empirical investigation," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 423-433, June.
  14. Clemente, Jesus & Montanes, Antonio & Reyes, Marcelo, 1998. "Testing for a unit root in variables with a double change in the mean," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 175-182, May.
  15. Tavares, Jose, 2004. "The open society assesses its enemies: shocks, disasters and terrorist attacks," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(5), pages 1039-1070, July.
  16. S. Brock Blomberg & Gregory D. Hess & Athanasios Orphanides, 2004. "The Macroeconomic Consequences of Terrorism," CESifo Working Paper Series 1151, CESifo Group Munich.
  17. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
  18. Sandler, Todd & Enders, Walter, 2004. "An economic perspective on transnational terrorism," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 301-316, June.
  19. repec:pdn:wpaper:20 is not listed on IDEAS
  20. Yemane Wolde-Rufael, 2009. "The Defence Spending-External Debt Nexus In Ethiopia," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(5), pages 423-436.
  21. Thomas Gries & Tim Krieger & Daniel Meierrieks, 2009. "Causal Linkages Between Domestic Terrorism and Economic Growth," Working Papers CIE 20, University of Paderborn, CIE Center for International Economics.
  22. Alberto Abadie & Javier Gardeazabal, 2003. "The Economic Costs of Conflict: A Case Study of the Basque Country," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 113-132, March.
  23. Drakos, Konstantinos & Kutan, Ali M., 2001. "Regional effects of terrorism on tourism: Evidence from three Mediterranean countries," ZEI Working Papers B 26-2001, ZEI - Center for European Integration Studies, University of Bonn.
  24. Mete Feridun & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2010. "Fighting Terrorism: Are Military Measures Effective? Empirical Evidence From Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(2), pages 193-205.
  25. Lutkepohl, Helmut, 1982. "Non-causality due to omitted variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 367-378, August.
  26. Cukierman, Alex, 2004. "Comment on: "Macroeconomic consequences of terror: theory and the case of Israel"," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(5), pages 1003-1006, July.
  27. Abadie, Alberto & Gardeazabal, Javier, 2005. "Terrorism and the World Economy," DFAEII Working Papers 2005-19, University of the Basque Country - Department of Foundations of Economic Analysis II.
  28. Bahar Araz-Takay & K. Peren Arin & Tolga Omay, 2009. "The Endogenous And Non-Linear Relationship Between Terrorism And Economic Performance: Turkish Evidence," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(1), pages 1-10.
  29. Chen, Andrew H. & Siems, Thomas F., 2004. "The effects of terrorism on global capital markets," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 349-366, June.
  30. Ziv Naor, 2006. "Untimely Death, The Value Of Certain Lifetime And Macroeconomic Dynamics," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(4), pages 343-359.
  31. Paul Turner, 2006. "Response surfaces for an F-test for cointegration," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(8), pages 479-482.
  32. Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2005. "The saving and investment nexus for China: evidence from cointegration tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(17), pages 1979-1990.
  33. Khusrav Gaibulloev & Todd Sandler, 2008. "Growth Consequences of Terrorism in Western Europe," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(3), pages 411-424, 08.
  34. Loayza, Norman, 2004. "Comment on: "The open society assesses its enemies: shocks, disasters and terrorist attacks"," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(5), pages 1071-1075, July.
  35. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Shabbir, Shahbaz Muhammad, 2011. "Is hike in inflation responsible for rise in terrorism in Pakistan?," MPRA Paper 31236, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 29 May 2011.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Vera Martínez Jorge, 2013. "Atributos de calidad del servicio de la telefonía móvil para clientes mexicanos y su impacto en la satisfacción y en la lealtad hacia la marca," Contaduría y Administración:Revista Internacional, Accounting and Management: International Journal, vol. 58(3), pages 39-63, julio-sep.
  2. Paz Grimberg & Zeev Schuss, 2014. "Stochastic model of a pension plan," Papers 1407.0517, arXiv.org.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:35101. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.