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How Streetcars Shaped Suburbanization: A Granger-Casality Analysis of Land Use and Transit in The Twin Cities

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Author Info

  • Feng Xie
  • David Levinson

    ()
    (Nexus (Networks, Economics, and Urban Systems) Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota)

Abstract

This paper presents a causality analysis of the coupled development of population and streetcars in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. Historic residence and network data were assembled for 1900-1930, and linear cross-sectional time-series models were estimated at both a tract and block level using this data. It is found that, in contrast with transportation systems that were expanded in response to increased demand, the rapid expansion of the streetcar system during the electric era has been driven by other forces and to a large extent led land development in the Twin Cities. The main forces that have driven this process include technological superiority, monopoly, close con- nections with real estate business, and peopleÕs reliance on the streetcar for mobility. Proximity to the streetcar is found to be a crucial factor that determines the distribu- tion and development of residences: it is observed that residential density declines with the distance from streetcar lines, and signiÞcantly drops beyond a walkable distance; it is also observed that gaining a closer access to streetcar lines within 800 meters (about a half mile) predicts the increase in residential density to a signiÞcant extent.

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File URL: http://nexus.umn.edu/Papers/Streetcar.pdf
File Function: First version, 2008
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group in its series Working Papers with number 201003.

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Date of creation: 2008
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Journal of Economic Geography 10(3), pp. 453-470.
Handle: RePEc:nex:wpaper:streetcar

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Postal: Dept. of Civil Engineering, 500 Pillsbury Drive SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455
Phone: +01 (612) 625-6354
Fax: +01 (612) 626-7750
Web page: http://nexus.umn.edu
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Related research

Keywords: Transport; land use; Twin Cities (Minnesota); Streetcars; Light Rail Transit; network growth; induced demand; induced supply;

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References

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  1. Michael Iacono & David Levinson & Ahmed El-Geneidy, 2007. "Models of Transportation and Land Use Change: A Guide to the Territory," Working Papers 200805, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
  2. Michael Corbett & Feng Xie & David Levinson, 2007. "Evolution of the Second-Story City: The Minneapolis Skyway System," Working Papers 200912, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
  3. David Levinson, 2008. "Density and dispersion: the co-development of land use and rail in London," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(1), pages 55-77, January.
  4. Robert Cervero & Mark Hansen, 2002. "Induced Travel Demand and Induced Road Investment: A Simultaneous Equation Analysis," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, London School of Economics and University of Bath, vol. 36(3), pages 469-490, September.
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Cited by:
  1. Robert A. Margo & Jeremy Atack, 2010. "The Impact of Access to Rail Transportation on Agricultural Improvement: The American Midwest as a Test Case, 1850-1860," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series WP2010-026, Boston University - Department of Economics.

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