Ownership Characteristics, Real Exchange Rate Movements and Labor Market Adjustment in China
AbstractThis paper uses a firm level multi-industry data set covering 456 Chinese manufacturing sectors to assess the implications of Renminbi (RMB) real exchange rate appreciation for adjustments in employment and wage rates. We stress differences in both industry and firm characteristics within sectors. Our empirical results show that modest (and also larger) RMB real exchange rate appreciation would likely have pronounced effects on both net employment and wage rates. A 10% RMB appreciation would likely cause a net employment decline in Chinese manufacturing industries of between 4.1% and 5.3%, and a wage rate drop of 4% after controlling for other factors. Real exchange rate change effects by industry on net employment and wage rates vary significantly with the ownership characteristics of firms within industries. Employment and wage rates for private enterprises are less responsive to RMB real exchange rate fluctuations than is true for state owned enterprises (SOEs) and foreign invested enterprises (FIEs). This finding is opposite to the widely held belief that the labor market behavior of Chinese SOEs shows stronger labor market rigidities than for private firms. Impacts of exchange rate movements emerge as systematically related to export openness, overall import penetration and profit margins of individual manufacturing industries.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 17565.
Date of creation: Nov 2011
Date of revision:
Note: ITI LS
Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- F16 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Labor Market Interactions
- F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
- J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
- J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-11-14 (All new papers)
- NEP-CNA-2011-11-14 (China)
- NEP-DEV-2011-11-14 (Development)
- NEP-OPM-2011-11-14 (Open Economy Macroeconomic)
- NEP-TRA-2011-11-14 (Transition Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- José Manuel Campa & Linda S. Goldberg, 1999.
"Employment versus Wage Adjustment and the U.S. Dollar,"
99-07, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Jose Manuel Campa & Linda S. Goldberg, 2001. "Employment Versus Wage Adjustment And The U.S. Dollar," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(3), pages 477-489, August.
- Jose Manuel Campa & Linda S. Goldberg, 1998. "Employment versus Wage Adjustment and the US Dollar," NBER Working Papers 6749, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jose Manuel Campa & Linda S. Goldberg, 1998. "Employment versus wage adjustment and the U.S. dollar," Staff Reports 56, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Nucci, Francesco & Pozzolo, Alberto Franco, 2010.
"The exchange rate, employment and hours: What firm-level data say,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 112-123, November.
- Francesco Nucci & Alberto Franco Pozzolo, . "The Exchange Rate, Employment and Hours: What Firm-Level Data Say," Working Papers 9, Department of the Treasury, Ministry of the Economy and of Finance.
- Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995.
"Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
- M Arellano & O Bover, 1990. "Another Look at the Instrumental Variable Estimation of Error-Components Models," CEP Discussion Papers dp0007, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Ronald McKinnon & Gunther Schnabl, 2006.
"China's Exchange Rate and International Adjustment in Wages, Prices and Interest Rates: Japan Déjà Vu?,"
CESifo Economic Studies,
CESifo, vol. 52(2), pages 276-303, June.
- Ronald Ian McKinnon & Gunther Schnabl, 2006. "China’s Exchange Rate and International Adjustment in Wages, Prices, and Interest Rates: Japan Déjà Vu?," CESifo Working Paper Series 1720, CESifo Group Munich.
- Galina Hale & Cheryl Long, 2011. "Did Foreign Direct Investment Put an Upward Pressure on Wages in China?," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 59(3), pages 404-430, August.
- Fernando Alexandre & Pedro Bação & João Cerejeira & Miguel Portela, 2010.
"Employment, exchange rates and labour market rigidity,"
NIPE Working Papers
2/2010, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
- Alexandre, Fernando & Bação, Pedro & Cerejeira, João & Portela, Miguel, 2010. "Employment, Exchange Rates and Labour Market Rigidity," IZA Discussion Papers 4891, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Fernando Alexandre & Pedro Bação & João Cerejeira & Miguel Portela, 2010. "Employment, exchange rates and labour market rigidity," GEMF Working Papers 2010-03, GEMF - Faculdade de Economia, Universidade de Coimbra.
- Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1995.
"Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models,"
IFS Working Papers
W95/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
- Blundell, R. & Bond, S., 1995. "Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models," Economics Papers 104, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- R Blundell & Steven Bond, . "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data model," Economics Papers W14&104., Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Dekle, Robert, 1998. "The yen and Japanese manufacturing employment," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 785-801, October.
- Revenga, Ana L, 1992. "Exporting Jobs? The Impact of Import Competition on Employment and Wages in U.S. Manufacturing," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 107(1), pages 255-84, February.
- McKinnon, Ronald, 2005. "Exchange Rate or Wage Changes in International Adjustment? Japan and China versus the United States," ZEW Discussion Papers 05-64, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Michael W. Klein & Scott Schuh & Robert K. Triest, 2000.
"Job Creation, Job Destruction, and the Real Exchange Rate,"
NBER Working Papers
7466, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Klein, Michael W. & Schuh, Scott & Triest, Robert K., 2003. "Job creation, job destruction, and the real exchange rate," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 239-265, March.
- Michael W. Klein & Scott Schuh & Robert K. Triest, 1999. "Job creation, job destruction, and the real exchange rate," Working Papers 99-11, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
- Linda Goldberg & Joseph Tracy, 2001.
"Exchange Rates and Wages,"
NBER Working Papers
8137, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.