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Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Car Distance Greenhouse Gases and the Effect of Built Environment: a Latent Class Regression Analysis

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  • Seyed Amir H. Zahabi
  • Luis Miranda-Moreno
  • Zachary Patterson
  • Philippe Barla
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    Abstract

    This work examines the temporal-spatial variations of daily automobile distance traveled and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and their association with built environment attributes and household socio-demographics. A GHGs household inventory is determined using link-level average speeds for a large and representative sample of households in three origin-destination surveys (1998, 2003 and 2008) in Montreal, Canada. For the emission inventories, different sources of data are combined including link-level average speeds in the network, vehicle occupancy levels and fuel consumption characteristics of the vehicle fleet. Built environment indicators over time such as population density, land use mix and transit accessibility are generated for each household in each of the three waves. A latent class (LC) regression modeling framework is then implemented to investigate the association of built environment and socio-demographics with GHGs and automobile distance traveled. Among other results, it is found that population density, transit accessibility and land-use mix have small but statistically significant negative impact on GHGs and car usage. Despite that this is in accordance with past studies, the estimated elasticities are greater than those reported in the literature for North American cities. Moreover, different household subpopulations are identified in which the effect of built environment varies significantly. Also, a reduction of the average GHGs at the household level is observed over time. According to our estimates, households produced 15% and 10% more GHGs in 1998 and 2003 respectively, compared to 2008. This reduction is associated to the improvement of the fuel economy of vehicle fleet and the decrease of motor-vehicle usage. A strong link is also observed between socio-demographics and the two travel outcomes. While number of workers is positively associated with car distance and GHGs, low and medium income households pollute less than high-income households.

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    File URL: https://www.create.ulaval.ca/sites/create.ulaval.ca/files/Publications/create2013-1.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by CREATE in its series Cahiers de recherche CREATE with number 2013-1.

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    Date of creation: 2013
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    Handle: RePEc:lvl:creacr:2013-1

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    Postal: Faculté des sciences de l'agriculture et de l'alimentation, Pavillon Paul-Comtois, 2425 rue de l'Agriculture, local 4424, Québec, Qc, G1V 0A6
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    Web page: http://www.create.ulaval.ca
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    Related research

    Keywords: Greenhouse gas emissions; spatio-temporal variations; built environment; latent class regression; household clusters;

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    References

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    1. Naveen Eluru & Chandra Bhat & Ram Pendyala & Karthik Konduri, 2010. "A joint flexible econometric model system of household residential location and vehicle fleet composition/usage choices," Transportation, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 603-626, July.
    2. Philippe Barla & Bernard Lamonde & Luis Miranda-Moreno & Nathalie Boucher, 2009. "Traveled distance, stock and fuel efficiency of private vehicles in Canada: price elasticities and rebound effect," Transportation, Springer, vol. 36(4), pages 389-402, July.
    3. Cao, Xinyu & Mokhtarian, Patricia & Handy, Susan, 2008. "Examining The Impacts of Residential Self-Selection on Travel Behavior: Methodologies and Empirical Findings," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt08x1k476, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    4. Brownstone, David & Golob, Thomas F., 2009. "The impact of residential density on vehicle usage and energy consumption," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 91-98, January.
    5. Bento, Antonio M. & Cropper, Maureen L. & Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq & Vinha, Katja, 2003. "The impact of urban spatial structure on travel demand in the United States," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3007, The World Bank.
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