The impact of urban spatial structure on travel demand in the United States
AbstractThe authors combine measures of urban form and public transit supply for 114 urbanized areas with the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey to address two questions: (1) How do measures of urban form, including city shape, road density, the spatial distribution of population, and jobs-housing balance affect the annual miles driven and commute mode choices of U.S. households? (2) How does the supply of public transportation (annual route miles supplied and availability of transit stops) affect miles driven and commute mode choice? The authors find that jobs-housing balance, population centrality, and rail miles supplied significantly reduce the probability of driving to work in cities with some rail transit. Population centrality and jobs-housing balance have a significant impact on annual household vehicle miles traveled (VMT), as do city shape, road density, and (in rail cities) annual rail route miles supplied. The elasticity of VMT with respect to each variable is small, on the order of 0.10-0.20 in absolute value. However, changing several measures of form simultaneously can reduce annual VMT significantly. Moving the sample households from a city with the characteristics of Atlanta to a city with the characteristics of Boston reduces annual VMT by 25 percent.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 3007.
Date of creation: 31 Mar 2003
Date of revision:
Housing&Human Habitats; Roads&Highways; Environmental Economics&Policies; Economic Theory&Research; Transport Economics Policy&Planning; Economic Theory&Research; Roads&Highways; Transport Economics Policy&Planning; Geographical Information Systems; Housing&Human Habitats;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2004-08-16 (All new papers)
- NEP-DCM-2004-09-12 (Discrete Choice Models)
- NEP-URE-2004-09-27 (Urban & Real Estate Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- McDonald, John F., 1989. "Econometric studies of urban population density: A survey," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 361-385, November.
- Edward L. Glaeser & Matthew E. Kahn, 2001.
"Decentralized Employment and the Transformation of the American City,"
NBER Working Papers
8117, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Edward L. Glaeser & Matthew E. Kahn, 2001. "Decentralized Employment and the Transformation of the American City," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1912, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Wheaton, William C., 1998. "Land Use and Density in Cities with Congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 258-272, March.
- Puller, Steven L. & Greening, Lorna A., 1999. "Household adjustment to gasoline price change: an analysis using 9 years of US survey data," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 37-52, February.
- Lave, Charles A, 1970. "The Demand for Urban Mass Transportation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 52(3), pages 320-23, August.
- Giuliano, Genevieve & Small, Kenneth A., 1993.
"Is the Journey to Work Explained by Urban Structure?,"
University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers
qt2ss7x5b1, University of California Transportation Center.
- Genevieve Giuliano & Kenneth A. Small, 1993. "Is the Journey to Work Explained by Urban Structure?," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 30(9), pages 1485-1500, November.
- Parry, Ian & Small, Kenneth, 2002.
"Does Britain or the United States Have the Right Gasoline Tax?,"
dp-02-12-, Resources For the Future.
- Ian W. H. Parry & Kenneth A. Small, 2005. "Does Britain or the United States Have the Right Gasoline Tax?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(4), pages 1276-1289, September.
- McFadden, Daniel, 1974. "The measurement of urban travel demand," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 303-328, November.
- David Levinson & Ajay Kumar, 1997. "Density and the Journey to Work," Working Papers 199701, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
- Boarnet, Marlon & Crane, Randall, 2001. "The influence of land use on travel behavior: specification and estimation strategies," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 823-845, November.
- Fred Mannering & Clifford Winston, 1985. "A Dynamic Empirical Analysis of Household Vehicle Ownership and Utilization," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 16(2), pages 215-236, Summer.
- Dubin, Jeffrey A & McFadden, Daniel L, 1984. "An Econometric Analysis of Residential Electric Appliance Holdings and Consumption," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(2), pages 345-62, March.
- Stephen Malpezzi, 1999. "Estimates of the Measurement and Determinants of Urban Sprawl in U.S. Metropolitan Areas," Wisconsin-Madison CULER working papers 99-06, University of Wisconsin Center for Urban Land Economic Research.
- Train, Kenneth, 1980. "A Structured Logit Model of Auto Ownership and Mode Choice," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(2), pages 357-70, January.
- Mills, Edwin S., 1992. "The measurement and determinants of suburbanization," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 377-387, November.
- Baum-Snow, Nathaniel & Kahn, Matthew E., 2000. "The effects of new public projects to expand urban rail transit," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 241-263, August.
- Peter Mieszkowski & Edwin S. Mills, 1993. "The Causes of Metropolitan Suburbanization," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 7(3), pages 135-147, Summer.
- Kim, Jinwon & Brownstone, David, 2013.
"The impact of residential density on vehicle usage and fuel consumption: Evidence from national samples,"
Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 196-206.
- Kim, Jinwon & Brownstone, David, 2013. "The Impact of Residential Density on Vehicle Usage and Fuel Consumption: Evidence from National Samples," MPRA Paper 47785, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Kim, Jinwon & Brownstone, David, 2010. "The impact of residential density on vehicle usage and fuel consumption," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt31m0w2x3, University of California Transportation Center.
- Colin Vance & Ralf Hedel, 2007. "The impact of urban form on automobile travel: disentangling causation from correlation," Transportation, Springer, vol. 34(5), pages 575-588, September.
- Seyed Amir H. Zahabi & Luis Miranda-Moreno & Zachary Patterson & Philippe Barla, 2013. "Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Car Distance Greenhouse Gases and the Effect of Built Environment: a Latent Class Regression Analysis," Cahiers de recherche CREATE 2013-1, CREATE.
- Bento, Antonio M. & Franco, Sofia F. & Kaffine, Daniel, 2011. "Is there a double-dividend from anti-sprawl policies?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 135-152, March.
- Colin Vance & Ralf Hedel, 2006. "On the Link between Urban Form and Automobile Use - Evidence from German Survey Data," RWI Discussion Papers 0048, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung.
- Fang, Hao Audrey, 2008. "A discrete-continuous model of households' vehicle choice and usage, with an application to the effects of residential density," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 42(9), pages 736-758, November.
- Nelson, Peter & Baglino, Andrew & Harrington, Winston & Safirova, Elena & Lipman, Abram, 2007.
"Transit in Washington, DC: Current benefits and optimal level of provision,"
Journal of Urban Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 231-251, September.
- Nelson, Peter & Bagliano, Andrew & Harrington, Winston & Safirova, Elena & Lipman, Abram, 2006. "Transit in Washington, D.C.: Current Benefits and Optimal Level of Provision," Discussion Papers dp-06-21, Resources For the Future.
- Reid Ewing & Harry W. Richardson & Keith Bartholomew & Arthur C. Nelson & Chang-Hee Christine Bae, 2014. "Compactness vs. Sprawl Revisited: Converging Views," CESifo Working Paper Series 4571, CESifo Group Munich.
- Naveen Eluru & Chandra Bhat & Ram Pendyala & Karthik Konduri, 2010. "A joint flexible econometric model system of household residential location and vehicle fleet composition/usage choices," Transportation, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 603-626, July.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.